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Abstracts from the 2017 Timor-Leste Studies Association

 19 July 2017

On 29-30 June 2017, the Timor-Leste Studies Association held its bi-annual international conference in Dili. This file contains the abstracts of the presentations. To access many of the complete presentations, click here.

Gender Inequality in Timor-Leste: The Need for Investment Towards Change of Mindset

Nurima Ribeiro Alkatiri, FRETILIN Central Committee

Gender inequality is a reality in Timor-Leste, and the process to change it has been facing several obstacles on political, economic and social levels. Timorese women had important roles in all fronts (armed, clandestine and diplomatic) of the resistance movement initiated and led by FRETILIN, but strong patriarchal beliefs are entrenched within the Timorese society. Women and children, at all levels of the society, are still the most vulnerable. Women and children with disabilities are even more vulnerable. Gender based related issues in Timor-Leste include high prevalence of violence against women and children, chronic mal nutrition, one of the highest birth rates in the world, high rates of maternal and child mortality and low rates of women participation in the work force. Current attitudes towards gender are learned. Education and Health are key to the change of behavior from individuals, hence change within the society. The gender quota for National Parliament has proven to be helpful first step, and it is an example of a mechanism to be implemented in other decision making bodies. Other mechanisms include support systems to ensure equity in the short term. Political will, which lead to gender mainstreaming and gender sensitive budgeting, is essential, as well as to ensure that the different actors and sectors have their voice heard during the process, ensuring involvement of both men and women, and for the process to be successful, cultural sensitivity is necessary on the policy making processes, but without forgetting that those processes must always consider the constant evolution of cultural values and the different factors that can cause the evolution we require towards gender equality.

How Women are Being Marginalized from the Process of Development

Berta Tilman

In 1999, Dili was once a city full of dust with kids chasing after INTERFET cars, now Dili has become the city full of private cars. One must have asked where do the people get the money to afford these luxury cars? According to the 2016 data survey by The Asian Foundation, most income received by population in Dili are from the Veterans Pension. Every veteran who were involved in the process of independence is now earning the privilege in the form of pension money for the contribution they made. Veterans by its popular definition in Timor-Leste are those who were directly involved in the arm-combatants against the Indonesian military. Therefore, by numbers most of the veterans are men. Then the question came up, how many women are veterans? How about those widows in Viqueque? How about those rape victims who didn’t register their name as veterans? Is Bolsa da Mae enough to sustain the life of vulnerable women. The purpose of this research is to further investigate the benefits of social security across gender i.e focusing on men and women in Timor-Leste. This research will include comparison between the Veteran Pension and Bolsa da Mae, analysis on how these two government policies contributing to the economic development of Timor-Leste. The data reference will be obtained from the minister of social solidarity, minister of finance, will be using 2010 census and also reliable website who have done comprehensive research in the same area; The Asia Foundation, World Bank, and Strategic Development Plan Website.

Women and Leadership – To Learn for the Future: Perceptions of Timorese Women as Researchers

Evelina Inan & Mira Fonseca, Alola Foundation

The Alola Foundation, with ALFeLa, carried out research in early 2017 into women and leadership in Timor-Leste to establish a baseline for a 5-year project funded by the Government of the Netherlands via IWDA as part of the regional Women’s Action for Voice and Empowerment (WAVE) program. The research covered research questions from the state of women’s capacity to take leadership in public and community spheres (particularly suco elections) to young women’s skills and confidence as leaders and duty bearers’ ability to enact their civic responsibilities to strengthen women’s participation. Although supported by international consultants, this research was deliberately driven and conducted by Timorese women, active as co-researchers, process designers and informants ensuring contextual and cultural relevance. The presentation will examine the learning of Timorese women as researchers and the importance of Timorese women building research skills and owning processes. This presentation will also describe the participatory process of the research, its findings and significance for engaging effective strategies to build women’s leadership.

Esperiensia Dezenvolve Sertifikadu III Servisu Sosiál

Evangelina Guterres, Faustina Yustinus, Zelia Hornay, Johana Shinta Dewi, Joana Vilanova, Emily Morrison, ho Kathryn Robertson, The Asia Foundation  1.5 MB PDF

Sertifikadu III Servisu Sosiál dezenvolve tanba ezijénsia husi nesesidade, ne’ebé to’o agora seidauk iha padraun kualifikasaun ne’ebé sistemátika ba fornesedór servisu sira atu hasa’e liu-tan kualidade atendimentu. Sertifikadu ne’e atu dezenvolve partisipante sira-nia abilidade hodi fó asisténsia ho kualidade hodi fasilita kliente sira atu bele hetan moris di’ak. Servisu Sosiál sei halo aproximasaun bazeia ba kliente nia forsa, bele dezenvolve relasaun ne'ebé profisionál no étiku ho komunidade sira no mos abilidade komunikasaun ho organizasaun relevante sira. Atu dezenvolve Sertifikadu ida ne’e, programa Nabilan (kona ba violensia kontra feto no labarik sira) kolabora ho setor Téknika Edukasaun Vokasionál no Treinamentu (TVET) liu liu Centro Treinamentu rua no INDMO, ho tan MSS, no NGO sira ne’ebé fo asisténsia ba vitima sira. Presentasaun ida fahe kona ba esperiensia husi kolaborasaun no hanusa atu kria formasaun ne’ebé systematiku no baseia husi kontekstu Timor-Leste.

Timorizasaun Istória: Relatu Esperiénsia iha Produsaun Materiál Didátiku

Rogério Sávio Ma’averu, Ministério da Educação

Hahú tinan 2014, ministériu edukasaun investe ba elaborasaun material didátiku bazeia ba perspetiva lokál no valoriza partisipasaun profesór no intelektuál timoroan sira. Aprezentasaun ida-ne’e sujere atu hatene mudansa sira kona-ba “timorizasaun” kurríkulu iha ensinu báziku. Foka hanesan referénsia kampu siénsia sosiál nian espesialmente ba dixiplina istória, sujere hodi analiza tendénsia “timorizasaun” iha edukasaun Timor-Leste nian iha momentu diferente. Ha’u-nia esperiénsia iha elaborasaun materiál didátiku istória kurríkulu 2014 nian, hatudu katak dezafiu boot ne’ebé enfrenta hodi fó kontinuidade ba prosesu ‘timorizasaun” edukasaun nian maka: falta uniformidade informasaun sira, falta istoriografia ne’ebé fó importánsia ba atores oioin ne’ebé konstrui istória Timor-Leste.

Kualidade Servis ho Satisfasaun Kostumariu: Estudu iha Industria Ensinu Superior Timor-Leste

Estanislau de Sousa Saldanha, Olinda Da Cruz Alves, Yenny Caetano, Leni Kana Djo, Santiana Guterres, Vital Barreto, Lauriano Bareto, Elianora Carvalho, ho Catharina Williams-van Klinken, Dili Institute of Technology

Paper nee investiga relasaun kualidade servis ho satisfasaun kostumariu iha kontextu instituisaun ensinu superior (IES) iha Timor-Leste. Kualidade servis liga ho satisfasaun estudante no influensa performansia instituisaun ensinu superior. Estudu nee investiga estudante hamutuk 300 husi IES akreditadu sia (9) iha Timor-Leste. Kuestionariu dezenvolve husi dimensaun lima (tangibilidade, reliabilidade, responsividade, empatia ho asuransia) kualidade servis nian, nebee adapta husi Parasuraman et al. (1994), Calvo-Porral et al. (2013); ho Chui et al. (2016). Tangibilidade kualidade servis sukat husi rai, uma, fasilidade, dosenti, kurikulu ho lian hanorin. Rezultadu peskiza nee hatudu kualidade servis iha ligasaun pozitivu-signifikante ho satisfasaun estudante sira nian. Dimensaun lima hotu influensa pozitivu ba satisfasaun estudante sira nian. Maske nunee, influensa boot liu mak dimensaun reliabilidade, responsividade, empatia, ho asuransia kompara ho tangibilidade. Estudu nee konfirma tan deit rezultadu peskiza husi estudu empirik sira husi Douglas et al. (2006), Katircioglu et al. (2012), Khoo et al. (2017). Tanba nee, IES sira iha Timor-Leste tenki buka hadia kualidade servis, liu-liu dimensaun sira nebee laos tangibilidade, hodi hasa’e nivel satisfasaun estudante nian. Nunee tulun hasae kompetitividade, no performansia IES sira nian.

Modernidade e Combate ao Branqueamento de Capitais no Novo Quadro Legal das Sociedades Comerciais em Timor Leste

Pedro Dias Venâncio, Universidade do Minho

O programa do VI Governo Constitucional realça a necessidade de desenvolver um setor privado sólido, moderno e diversificado, concretizando as diretrizes constantes do Plano Estratégico de Desenvolvimento 2011-2030, e implementando o Guia de Reforma e Fomento Económico 2015-2017. Paralelamente, o Plano Estratégico Nacional de Combate ao Branqueamento de Capitais e Financiamento do Terrorismo (2016-2020), apresentado em Conselho de Ministros a 14-06-2016, prevê como “Objectivo estratégico 8: melhorar a transparência relativamente aos beneficiários efetivos de pessoas colectivas estabelecidas dentro desta jurisdição”. Esta matéria encontra-se atualmente regulamentada na Lei de Branqueamentos de Capitais, aprovada pela Lei 17/2011, de 28-12, e alterada pela Lei 5/2013, de 14-08. A Proposta de Lei nº 39/III/(4ª ), que aprova uma nova Lei das Sociedades Comerciais, inclui também nos seus objetivos «adaptar a legislação timorense aos critérios internacionais de promoção do investimento, combate ao branqueamento de capitais e transparência da atividade empresarial». Este objetivo reflete-se nas opções de eliminar as ações ao portador nas sociedades anónimas e impor obrigações de recolha de informação e comunicação beneficiários efetivos de partes sociais, colocando o ordenamento jurídico timorense a par das principais tendências e recomendações dos organismos internacionais.

Resolução de Conflitos e a Construção da Pessoa: Um Estudo de Cas

Daniel S. Simião Universidade de Brasília

A comunicação explora duas interpretações acerca do papel de formas locais de resolução de conflito na construção da pessoa em Timor-Leste, com base em um estudo de caso de 4 anos em um suku de Liquiçá. Por um lado, propõe-se que muitos conflitos estão relacionados a déficits de reconhecimento da “dignidade” de pessoas e grupos. Nesses casos, práticas de mediação local, na forma como se dão – objetificadas na troca de bens que simbolizam a natureza de relações específicas por meio das quais uma pessoa é constituída – podem ser tomadas como política de reconhecimento do valor social de pessoas e grupos. Por outro lado, entende-se que a manutenção de conflitos interpessoais também pode ser utilizada como mecanismo de acionamento da agência individual sobre trocas materiais entre famílias. Em um contexto no qual quase toda ação se refere à agência dos ancestrais de casas sagradas e as decisões individuais pode se tornar muito perigosas se não sancionadas por aqueles que agem como mediadores dos ancestrais, adiar a resolução de uma contenda familiar parece ser um mecanismo simbolicamente eficaz para fortalecer a agência de uma pessoa, singularizando um indivíduo no interior de uma rede de relações recíprocas que constitui a pessoa social. ,

Poder, Cultura e Ordem Social: Perspectivas e Manifestações na Sociedade Timorense

Alessandro Boarccaech Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Por meio dodiálogo entre antropologia, psicologia e semiótica este estudo analisou algumasdas percepções acerca do significado de ordem social, cultura e poderpresentes na sociedade timorense. As observações ocorreram entre os anos de2015 e 2016 com 310 estudantes universitários – 162 do sexo feminino e 148 dosexo masculino – que frequentavam os cursos de Licenciatura da Faculdade deFilosofia e da Faculdade de Educação, Artes e Humanidades da Universidade NacionalTimor Lorosa’e. Divididos em nove turmas com aproximadamente 34 pessoas cada, foi realizada uma dinâmica de grupo, seguida de um debate e posteriorentrevista individual com 78 alunos (42 mulheres e 36 homens) escolhidos deforma aleatória. Entre os resultados está a ideia de que as três categoriasestão interligadas, onde a ordem estaria associada a ausência de conflitomanifesto, sendo a cultura e o exercício do poder meios para promover e garantir asensação de estabilidade social.

Scapegoating on the Australian Doorstep

Susan Connelly Australian Catholic University

René Girard developed a Christian anthropology which provides an invaluable tool for interpreting the human situation, and as such, is useful in analysing the relationship between Australia and Timor-Leste (East Timor). As a case study of this relationship, this paper analyses interactions in the early 1980s between ex-Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and the Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Dili, Monsignor da Costa Lopes, connected to Whitlam's visit to East Timor, using the Monsignor's letters and Whitlam's statements and press conferences. The paper draws on René Girard's "stereotypes of persecution” to understand Lopes’ experience as scapegoat. Girard details four features of scapegoating: crisis, crime, criteria for the choice of a scapegoat, and finally the violence done to the victim. This fourfold schema of persecution can be demonstrated when considering the treatment of Lopes concerning an expected famine in Timor.

The Dunn Report Forty Years On

Peter Job, University of New South Wales

In early 1977 former Consul to Portuguese Timor James Dunn published The Dunn Report on East Timor, a document widely circulated both in Australian and internationally which, based on the testimony of Timorese refugees in Lisbon, produced strong evidence, since verified, of the humanitarian and military situation in East Timor. As such it was a challenge to the Fraser will Government’s efforts to marginalise public and international concerns about the situation in the territory in order to prioritise good relations with the Suharto government and continue to support it in the international arena. The report also had a profound impact internationally and was a pivotal element in establishing US Congressional investigations into the situation in East Timor. This paper examines the impact of the Dunn Report within Australia and in the international arena and the Fraser Government’s response to it.

Selection of Drought Resistance Grain Legumes for Growing Them After Rice

Marcal Gusmão, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

In Timor-Leste, paddy fields are abandoned after harvesting rice due to lack of irrigation for another crop. The current study aimed at identifying drought adaptive five potential grain legumes to grow after rice. The study was carried out in a horticultural production area of Manleuana, Dili from May to September 2016 using a randomized block design with three replications. This study observed that all legume plant species tested produced high biomass ranging from 5.5 to 31 ton/ha for droughted bean and control cow pea, respectively. Seed yield ranged from 2.9 ton/ha (grass pea) to 9 ton/ha (green pea). In particular bean, a high elevation legume, matured earliest than any other species and produced seeds of up to 7 ton/ha in control plants, confirming its adaptation to lowland areas during the dry season. Further grass pea produced seeds up to 4.5 ton/ha in control plants, confirming its adaptation to Timor Leste environment. This study concluded that all legume plant species tested produced high biomass and thus seed yields that are potential to grow them after rice. For a particular purpose of seed production, beans and green pea are most appropriate species to grow when water availability is a limiting factor.

Control of Diamond Back Moth Plutella Xylotella on Cabbage by Using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Method in Aldeia Lauheli, Suco Hororai Ki’ik, Sub District Maubisse, District Ainaro, Timor Leste

Roni Pati Tpoi, Independent Researcher

Timor-Leste is situated in eastern end of Timor island and has different topography. Agriculture is a primary source of income. More than 75 % of its population depend on agriculture with small land holdings. Cabbage is cruciferous crops that can grow in well drained soils, moisture retentive, loamy soils with organic matter. Diamond back moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) is destructive insect of cruciferous that cause yield losses by feeding voraciously on foliage. In Timor Leste, this pest has contributed to the cabbage losses and various control method has been applied, however Integrated Pest Management(IPM)method of control has not been used. The research was carried out for controlling a DBM on cabbage using IPM and the survey on cost analysis. It was found that using of neem leaves show low damage and gained more weight. On survey, organic control proved to be better control. Moreover, level of education influence in pest control.

Mapping of Soil Fertility using Landsat Data in Lautem District, Timor-Leste

Romaldo Da Costa Ximenes, Takahiro Osawa, & I Wayan Nuarsa, Universidade Oriental Timor Lorosa’e; Center of Remote Sensing and Ocean Science; Master of Environmental Science Study Program, Denpasar-Bali

The increase population as 24% (2004-2013) in Lautém District indirectly effect the land use change and the water resource for agriculture will be the main problems. The study of land indexes (vegetation index and wetness index) using satellite data can give one of the solutions for drought monitoring. Field observation data and remote sensing data were used for estimating soil fertility map from 2013-2015. The objectives of this study are: 1) To estimate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI) by satellite landsat-8, 2) To estimate soil fertility from NDVI and NDWI, and 3) To assess the accuracy of soil fertility map in Lautém District, Timor-Leste. The highest value of NDVI, NDWI, N-total and organic matter were estimated in the southern parts of Lautém District. The soil fertility maps showed that high fertility in 02 November 2013 and 27 April 2014. The accuracy assessment between the field observation data and remote sensing data showed approximately equal. Accuracy for N-total was 82% (R2=0.82) and for organic matter was 94% (R2 ).

Efeitu Adaptasaun Hare Variedade Lokál Mean ba Klima no Ambiente

Tobias Moniz Vicente no Robert Williams, Ministerio da Agrikultura no Peskas, Seeds of Life

Rezultadu teste adaptivu ba hare natar (Oryza sativa L.) variedade lokál mean hahú hósi tinan 2011-2016 ne’ebé kuda kompara ho variedade seluk introdus hósi Instituisaun IRRI iha epoka udan been no bailoron. Peskiza ne’e atu hatene rezultadu produsaun hósi variedade 25 ne’ebé kuda ona iha tipu agroekologika diferente mak hanesan Aileu, Baucau no Maliana. Peskiza adaptivu ne’e hala’o ona durante tinan lima nia laran ho objetivu atu hatene variedade ida ne’ebé mak fó produsaun diak no a’as. Métodu ne’ebé uza iha pesquiza mak hanesan, fatór variedade, distansia kuda 20cm x 30cm entre linha, kuda hun rua kada rai kuak, durasaun biberos loron 20 muda ba área pesquiza, manajementu hatama bee irrigasaun hanesan troka bee kada semana, bee nalihun 10cm iha natar laran no durante peskiza nia laran laiha aplikasaun adubus organiku ka anorganiku hahú hósi kuda to’o kolheita. Variedade Lokál mean N2 ne’ebé koko durante tinan lima nia laran hatudu ona produsaun médiu 3.98 t/ha no rezultadu médiu ba variabel númeru hare oan total hamutuk 33.8 a’as liu kompara ho variedade seluk.

Solusaun Balun ho Batar Híbridu no Ninia Teknologia iha Timor Leste

Claudino Ninas Nabais, Manuel Guterres, no Kim Soon Kwon, Ministério da Agricultura e Pescas; International Corn Foundation

Batar (Zea mays L.) historikamente kultura introduzidu durante era kolonial. Maske la klaru konaba entrada batar iha Timor-Leste, maibe prosesu evolusaun hatudu ona diversidade variedades batar ho ninia genetika nebe dau-daun neé eziste iha dieferensias agro-ekologikas no sai ona aihoris importante teb-tebes. Produktividade máximu batar lokal iha deit 1.2t ha-1 kompara ho variedades polinizasaun livres (OPVs) ka sintétikus ho aproximadamente 3.0t ha-1. Timor-Leste seidauk iha dezenvolvimentu batar híbridu nebe signifikante maski iha toos-nain ida-rua hahu kuda fini híbridu importadu. Hare husi nesesidade iha futuru maka iha tinan 2004, International Corn Foundation (ICF) no Kyungpook National University (KNU) husi Korea do Sul servisu hamutuk ho Ministério da Agricultura, Pescas e Florestas hahu programa melhoramentu batar. Ekipa kolekta variedades lokais no kruza ho genotipu ezótika sira hodi bele hetan linhas élitus nebe iha produsaun as no rezistensia ba moras “Ker” (Peronosclerospora sorghi). Ekipa kruza 4000 genotipus iha tinan 2010 no dezenvolve linhas élitus endogamias no halo seleksaun kontinuamente toó tinan 2014 nebe hela deit linhas 500. Radom mating crosses halao iha faze neé hodi koko kombinasaun abilidade hodi hetan produsaun híbridu nebe as no rezistente ba moras Ker. Iha tinan 2016, ekipa selesiona linhas élitus 25 nebe sai endogamias (inbred lines) ba híbridu.

Testu Afalatoxin Batar Musan Maran

Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai, Libanio Paulo da Cruz de Jesus, Antonio dos Santos , ho Rosilia Lopes Ministerio de Agricultura e Pescas; Direção Naçional de Pesquisas, Estatistica e Informação Geografica; Departamento Inovação Teknologia e Pós Colheita; Grupu Agricultór

Produtu agríkola mak sequru nudar standarizasaun konsumidór sira atu konsumu, realidade hatudu katak batar musan maran iha kontaminasaun mitoxin spesifiku maka afalatoxin B1 ne’e be perigu tebes ba ema nia saude no animal. Fontes afalatoxin husi Aspergillus flavous no Aspergillus Parasiticus iha veneno afeta kankru laran, aten ki’ik la fungsi ho diak no impede dezemvolve ruin ba labarik sira. Produtu agríkola mak iha venenu afalatoxin sereal, leguminose no temperus modo. Rekolla uza metòdu kahur no intervista diretamente, amostra husi merkadu, assosiasaun no to’os nain ho total 60 kg, husi munisipíu Aileu, Bobonaro, Ermera, Lautem no Viqueque hahu husi Fulan Novembru to’o Dezembru 2016. Objetivu husi peskiza atu hatene pursentu kontaminasaun afalatoxin (ppb) kada amostra mak rekolla. Rezultadu analiza hatudu katak fontes amostra husi assosiasaun kontaminasaun afalatoxin a’as liu 13.5 % iha Munisipíu Aileu husi assosiasaun Kokorek Manufoni, ki’ik liu assosiasaun Tane Fini 3.21%, fontes amostra batar musan maran husi merkadu Aileu kontaminasaun afalatoxin a’as liu 5.41% no ki’ik liu husi merkadu Viqueque 3.16%, fontes amostra batar musan maran husi to’os nain kontaminasaun afalatoxin a’as liu 6.18 % iha munisipíu Lautem i ki’ik liu 1.47 % iha munisipíu Aileu.

Partisipasi Kaum Wanita dalam Pembangunan di Timor-Leste Sesudah Kemerdekaan

Julio Apariço UNTL-FCS

Disertasi ini berjudul partisipasi kaum wanita dalam pembangunan di Timoor Leste setelah kemerdekaan. Namun dalam penelitian ini lebih menitikberatkan pada partisipasi kaum wanita dalam aspek ekonoomi dan pendidikan. Disertasi ini disajikan sebagai disertasi master dalam studi sejarah gender di Fakultas Letras dan Universitas Lisbon-Portugal. Adapun tujuan dari disertasi ini yaitu untuk menemukan dan menganalisis partisiapsi kaum wanita dalam pembangunan, menemukan dan menganalisis masalah-masalah serta mencari solusi bagi masalah tersebut untuk partisipasi kaum wanita dalam pembangunan. Ada beberapa pandangan teoritis yang dipakai dalam disertasi ini yaitu gender, pembangunan, gender dan pembangunan, gender dan persamaan, paradigma pembangunan manusia, pertumbuhan ekonomi, pendidikan formal dan informal serta pendidikan terus menerus dalam kehidupan manusia. Metode yang dipakai adalah metode kualitatif deskriptif dengan melakukan penelitian di Timor Leste. Untuk mendapatkan data akurat maka melakukan wawancara dengan para responden yang berkaitan dengan tema yang telah dipilih yaitu: para penjual buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran, para ibu guru dan ibu rumah tangga, para direktur perusahaan, para direktur organisasi kaum wanita dan para pekerja wanita di toko atau supermercado.

Analisa Tentang Kontribusi Sekolah Menengah Atas Terhadap Upaya Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Karakter Anak Didik di Dili, Timor-Leste

Erlina Suciati dan Cândido Belo da Luz

Penelitian ini didasarkan atas fenomena sosial lemahnya karakter siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas di Timor Leste serta kurang efektifnya strategi penerapan pengembangan pendidikan karakter pada skala mikro di Sekolah Menengah Atas di Timor Leste jika ditinjau dari aspek kurikulum muatan lokal, guru, kerjasama sekolah dengan orang tua atau wali murid, pelaksanaan program ekstrakurikurikuler, serta dukungan dari pemerintah melalui Kementerian Pendidikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisa pentingnya upaya sekolah dalam pembinaan dan pengembangan karakter anak didik, penerapannya pada skala mikro di sekolah-sekolah pada saat ini, serta menemukan bentuk-bentuk ideal bagi pengimplementasian program pengembangan pendidikan karakter di Sekolah Menengah Atas di Timor-Leste. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah metode kualitatif dengan analisa secara induktif dengan instrument penelitian dalam pengambilan data secara triangulasi meliputi wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi. Subyek penelitian ini adalah 3 Sekolah Menengah Atas meliputi Escola Secundário Publico 4 de Setembro Balide, Escola Secundário Prifado Herois da Patria Becora, serta Escola Secundário Catolica Sagrado Coração de Jesus Becora. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pendidikan karakter di Sekolah Menengah Atas di Timor-Leste saat ini pada taraf mulai terlihat (heteronomi) menuju taraf mulai berkembang (sosionomi), sehingga kedepannya perlu ditingkatkan lebih baik lagi. Untuk itu perlu dukungan dan kerjasama yang bersinergi antara sekolah, orang tua atau wali murid, serta pemerintah, agar dengan pendidikan karakter di Sekolah Menengah Atas di Timor-Leste mampu menghasilkan output generasi muda yang berkualitas, kreatif, kompetitif, berbudi pekerti luhur, sehingga dapat beradaptasi dengan perubahan sosial dan globalisasi yang terjadi di Timor-Leste dewasa ini.

Saida Mak Influénsia Feto Ida Nia Abilidade Hodi Asesu Ba Planeamentu Familiar Iha Timor-Leste?

Heather Julie Wallace, Suzanne Belton, Angela Taft, Susan McDonald, Livio da Concencao Matos, Agueda Isolina Miranda, Eurico da Costa, & Helen Henderson, La Trobe University; Charles Darwin University; Marie Stopes Timor-Leste

Antesedente: Asesu ba planeamentu familiar hamenus risku ba mortalidade inan, maibé halo planeamentu familiar sai disponivel ba komunidade sira la’os sempre rezulta ba iha asesu. Projeitu peskiza kolaborativu ida hala’o hodi identifika bareira sira ba uzu, no persepsaun sira ne’ebé iha ba planementu familiar iha Timor-Leste. Métodu: Projetu peskiza kualitativu ida ne’e uza metodolojia dekolonizasaun. Peskiza ne’e kompostu hosi períodu peskiza baze nian 2 iha munisípiu 4. Asuntu planeamentu familiar ne’e diksuti ho feto no mane sira ne’ebé ho idade reprodutivu ho maneira diskusaun grupu (FGD), dezeña mapa isin-lolon no entrevista. Rezultadu sira: Fatór barak mak influénsia asesu ba planeamentu familiar nian inklui koñesimentu ba fisiolójiku reprodutivu no valores patriarkál nian. Em jerál koñesimentu biomédiku kona-ba planeamentu familiar sei limitadu no falun ho mito no suspeita sira. Feto sira espresa sira nia hakarak atu kontrola fertilidade, maibé asesu ba planeamentu familiar sein lisensa hosi sira nia la’en bele rezulta iha violénsia família. Diskusaun: Kompriensaun ba impaktu kulturál, sosiál no istórikál ba foti desizaun saúde reprodutiva nian, habele resposta ne’ebé kulturalmente apropriadu no bazeia ba evidénsia atu bele dezenvolve.

Esplora Reprodutiva Etnoanatomía no Etnofisiolójia Liuhosi Dezeña Mapa Isin-Lolon ho Timoraon Feto no Mane Sira

Heather Julie Wallace, Suzanne Belton, Angela Taft, Susan McDonald, Livio da Concencao Matos, Agueda Isolina Miranda, Eurico da Costa, & Helen Henderson La Trobe University; Charles Darwin University; Marie Stopes Timor-Leste

Antesedente: Esplora komunidade nia persepsaun kona-ba sira nia saúde reprodutiva sei fornese kompriensaun ba fiar reprodutiva no ezisténsia mitu ka mispersepsaun. Dezeña mapa isin-lolon nu’udar métodu peskiza ida ne’ebé efetivu no sensitivu hodi esplora kompriensaun etnoanatomía no etnofisiolójia nian. Métodu: Peskiza kualitativu ne’e hala’o durante períodu servisu baze semana rua iha munisípiu 4 iha Timor-Leste. Ami konvida feto no mane sira ne’ebé ho idade reprodutiva atu dezeña templetu isin-lolon tuir sira nia persepsaun ba sistema reprodutivu no planeamentu familiar. Partisipante sira esplika sira nia dezeñu ho segredu ba fasilitadór sira. Dezeñu hirak ne’e analiza ho reprezentasaun vizuál kontrast no esplikasaun verbál ne’ebé fornese hosi partisipante sira. Xave rezultadu sira: Iha hanoin úniku hosi atitude lokál no vokabuláriu. Fiar emic no koñesimentu deskreve prosesu saúde reprodutiva, inklui fatin ba espermatogenesis iha mane nia ain-tuur, no sexu hosi fetus determina jestasaun no parte- espesífiku ba fatin uterine nian. Diskusaun: Hanoin sira hanesan ne’e fornese koñesimentu no kumpriensaun importante kona-ba ida ne’ebé mak atu harii ka modifika kulturalmente apropriadu ba informasaun saúde no edukasaun.

Dalan/Maneira ba Foti Desizaun sira Relasiona ho Kaben Sedu no Isin-Rua Sedu iha Timor-Leste

Deborah Cummins ho Mira Fonseca, UNFPA

Peskiza ne’e esplora kona ba konsekuénsia husi kaben sedu no impaktu husi isin-rua sedu ba jovem feto sira iha Timor-Leste. Hamutuk 16% jovem feto Timor oan sira maka kaben ho idade 15 no 19 (Census, 2015). Tuir jovem feto sira ne’e kaben signifika sira ninia tempu jovem nian remata ona no sira tama ba periodu inan-aman nian. Bainhira sira ninia oan primeiru moris ida ne’e prevene sira ninia abilidade atu kompleta sira ninia edukasaun, buka sira ninia indepensia ekonomia no hamenus sira ninia aspirasaun ba sira ninia futuru. Peskiza kualitativa ne’e kompostu ho jovem feto 24, sira ninia parseius, inan-aman, profesores no pesoál saúde, ne’ebe fo emfaze ba limitasaun kona ba sira ninia koñesimentu komprenhensivu seksuál, menus ajénsia iha sira ninia relasaun seksuál, ne’ebe maka dalaruma koersivu tuir natureza, no sira ninia tauk bainhira ema husik sira no hetan stigma husi komunidade ne’ebe maka sai hanesan implikasaun dubro husi isin-rua sedu.

Tetun Nudar Lian Jornalizmu

Catharina Williams-van Klinken no John Hajek Dili Institute of Technology; University of Melbourne

Durante Portugal ho Indonezia ukun, jornalista sira hakerek ho lian Portuges, depois lian Indonezia, Tetun lae. Referendum 1999 nian liu tiha, sira komesa hakerek ho lian Tetun. Nunee hamosu kedas ‘rejistu’ (tipu linguajen) Tetun nebee foun. Iha aprezentasaun nee, autor sira analiza jornal hosi 2009 ho 2016 hodi kompara, lingua ofisial ho lingua trabalhu ida-ida uza ba funsaun nebee. Depois sira analiza karakteristika Tetun jornalizmu nian. Hosi 1999 too 2016 proporsaun Tetun iha jornal sae, too artigu nasional kuaze hotu-hotu hakerek ho lian Tetun, so iha Business Weekly mak lae. Promosaun (iklan) ho lian Tetun mos aumenta. Vokabulariu iha jornal barak loos hosi Portuges. Gramatika balu mos tuir Portuges, por ezemplu uza plural (livru-s), i dala ruma jeneru (areas remotas). Iha estrutura foun balu, no estrutura tradisional balu nebee kuaze la uza iha jornal. Nee hotu hatudu influensia makaas hosi linguajen jornalizmu internasional, hosi tradusaun literal, no hosi regra jornalizmu nian.

Importansia Zoneamentu Espasiál ba Habitasaun Komunidade iha Munisípiu Díli

Yonatan Gonsalves

Hanesan kapitál nasaun, Díli dadaun ne’e nu’udar sentru ba ukun no bandu, sentru ba órgaun Estadu sira hala’o nia kna’ar administrativu no polítika. Alem de ne’e, Díli sai mós sentru ba atividade ekonomia, fatin ba atividade komérsiu no negósiu, edukasaun no seluk-seluk tán. Tanba ne’e, Díli dada ema hotu-hotu atu mai hosi ema kiik no bót tantu joven no labarik hotu-hotu hakarak mai hela iha Díli, Díli hipnótiku no destinadu esperansa nian. Bainhira ema hotu hakarak mai iha Díli, Díli mosu ho ninia dezafiu rasik, kresimentu ema iha Díli aumenta, tanba ne’e halo Díli mós hasoru problema habitasaun ka hela fatin, tanba buat hotu konsentradu, fatin ba buka servisu no tau esperansa ba moris di’ak. Durante iha tinan sanolu-resin nia laran, depois ukun án, prosesu dezenvolvimentu iha Díli neneik maibé kuaze la’o maka’as, no iha tempu mak hanesan urbanizasaun Díli ás, no bazeia ba Sensus Populasaun tinan 2010 no 2015 hatudu Díli lori naha todan liu ona, kompara ho munisípiu sira, Díli akumula - naha kuaze ema besik 22% hosi totál populasaun Timor-Leste tomak. Relasaun ho kestaun ne’e, Díli presiza iha zoneamentu propiu, nune’e dezenvolvimentu ne’ebé hala’o iha sustentabildade. Bazeia ba rezultadu peskiza iha Suko-tolu mak hanesan; Suku Caicoli, Suku Motael no Suku Bemori hatudu katak, habitasaun povu seidauk organizadu no rungu-ranga los; uma tati’is liu malu, espasu entre viziñu sei fahe de’it ho valeta, sintina liga direta ba valeta, be’e posu kria iha uma laran, uma hatu’ur iha valeta leten, espasu uma entre estrada la to’o metru ida, hakiak fahi iha uma laran (dapur) no prejudika kestaun sosiál barak makmosu. Fenómena hirak ne’ebé akontese ho laiha zoneamentu propiu, hamósu impaktu social oin-oin durante ne’e iha komunidade nia le’et, lori malun ba polísia tanba iha diferensia moris no karáter, hamósu ambiente ne’ebé la saudável to’o hamósu moras oin-oin. Informasaun ne’ebé peskizadór hetan katak, Munisípiu Díli rasik seidauk iha planu zonementu espasiál, hodi nune’e bele fó atensaun ba prevensaun ba habitasaun povu ne’ebé rungu-ranga, Munisipiu Díli iha tendensia hein de’it orden hosi nível nasionál hodi regulariza habitasaun komunidade nian. IV Governu Konstitusionál 2012, liu hosi nia polítika ba planu urbana, bazeia Planu Estratéjiku Dezenvolvimentu Nasionál 2011-2030. Governu aloka orsamentu iha tinan 2012 hodi antisipa habitasaun komunidade tuir padraun maibe, tanba laiha komitmentu, programa ba dezenvolve seitor urbana foin akontese (estudu) iha tinan 2014. Liu hosi programa Estudu Espasiál Planu Urbana Nível Nasionál nomós Planeamentu Espasiál Zona Norte (Munisipiu Baucau, Manatuto, Lospalos Liquisa no Munisipiu Díli).

Turbina Hidro-Electrica Altura 4M

Domingos de Sousa Freitas, Junior Raimundo da Cruz, ho Chris Mares Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e; University of Maine

Governu Timor-Leste halo ona investimentu signifikativu has ba area infrastrutura. Kustu orsanmentu ba iha area infrastrutura iha ano fiscal 2011 ho montante $682 millones, ba program elektrifikasaun 52% husi total orsamentu estadu kompara alokasaun orsaanmentu preve ba programa importante sira seluk; Edukasaun $84 milloens no Saude 42 milloens, (Lao Hamutuk, 2010). Mega Projeitu Power Plant iha Centro Estasaun Hera ho kapasidade 120MW, Estasaun Betano 130MW no ilha Enclave Oecussi 17MW, total fontes enerjia instaladu 267MW, enerjia surplus ba populasaun iha Timor-Leste 1.2 abitantes. Kapasidade enerjia boot liu kompara ho konsumidor enerjia iha Timor-Leste. Utlitizasaun enerjia ba atividade sira hanesan; Ajencia Internasional 7%, Sociais 20%, Domestika 18%, Governu 50% no Komersiais. millions and energy proportion in Timor-Leste only 65% for various necessities for International Agency 7%, Socials 20%, domestics 18%, governments 50% and commercials. Maske Timor-Leste ninia enerjia husi fontes fossil fuels surplus, maibe Timor-Leste riku rekursu enerjia renovaveis; Enerjia Eolica 72MW, Enerjia Loron Matan 22MW, Mina husi Aihoris no foer 6MW, Be 325MW (Martifier Study, 2010). Iha tinan 2020 Timor-Leste tenki indrodus fontes enerjia renovavies maibe defaktu ita seidauk hahu. Iha estudu ida ne’e “Desenvolve Enerjia Renovaies fontes Hidro-Electrica Turbina Pelton”. Teknolojia Amigu ho Ambiente no produs enerjia mos. Metodu halo experimentu no iha Laboraotrium Departamentu Mecanica, Hera no sei monta iha Distrito sira identifikadu.

A Adesão de Timor à ASEAN

Nuno Canas Mendes Universidade de Lisboa

Nesta comunicação, o autor fará um enquadramento sobre a ASEAN, das origens aos nossos dias, e criação dos três pilares comunitários e o arranque da comunidade económica em 2015, após o que descreverá a manifestação do interesse de TL fazer parte da ASEAN e apresentação da candidatura em 2011, incluindo a obtenção do estatuto de observador e participação no ARF. De seguida, analisará as resistências de alguns Estados-membros à adesão de TL e respectivos argumentos e finalmente ensaiará um balanço prospectivo sobre que pode ganhar e perder TL quando entrar na organização.

De Cultura a Patrimônio: Uma Lulik no Timor-Leste Pós Colonial e Seus Efeitos na Reprodução Social

Renata Nogueira da Silva Universidade de Brasília

O objetivo dessa proposta é compreender as afetações entre narrativas sobre uma lulik de diferentes agências e atores, e a elaboração de políticas de preservação do patrimônio cultural de Timor-Leste. A investigação se fundamenta no diálogo com certa literatura que: a) concebe a casa como uma categoria capaz de articular alianças, trocas e parentescos; b) se baseia em etnografias sobre uma lulik e sua centralidade na construção de narrativas relacionadas à afirmação da Nação e ao desenvolvimento econômico do Estado leste-timorense; e c) se desenvolve como uma antropologia voltada à compreensão dos processos de identificação e reconhecimento de patrimônios culturais em suas dimensões materiais e imateriais.

The Indigenization of the Pacific War on Timor Island 1942-1945: A Study Based on Multi-Language Sources

Kisho Tsuchiya National University of Singapore

Anglophone historians reproduced the episodes of East Timorese criados who assisted the Australian guerrillas during the Pacific War. It is only one side of the story. Later, when the Japanese adopted the same strategy to utilize the locals for war purpose with an anti-colonialist propaganda, a more complex war situation emerged on Timor Island. This article attempts to provide a multi-dimensional picture of the West and East Timorese participation in violence during 1942-45 by incorporating often overlooked Japanese and Portuguese sources. The first part of the article chronologically narrates the foreign parties’ contexts to the indigenization of the Pacific War in Timor, and the latter part traces how it affected some of the prominent Timorese clans in the border areas (Atambua, Hatolia, etc.), Viqueque, and Ainaro. The author argues that mobilization of the ‘natives’ by the foreign forces in the neutral Portuguese Timor resulted in massive consequences; violation of Portuguese neutrality, an intensification of local tensions, a great number of Timorese & Portuguese casualties, and a trans-colonial reorganization of indigenous & racial relations. In conclusion, the author questions the existing notion of the period as merely an “interruption” before the last years of Portuguese “colonialism” in Timor-Leste’s national history. The memories of the Pan-Timorese hostility against the Europeans were strong incentives to the alteration of Portuguese post-war policy towards multi-racialism, prohibition of the “uncivilized natives” mobility, and semi-forced settlement from the border areas and highlands to the villages.

The Role of the Mother in Some of Timor-Leste’s First Novels

Isabel Moutinho, La Trobe University

Long-suffering, self-sacrificing mothers are essential minor characters in some of the short novels that have won first prize in the ‘Istoria Timor’ competition. In Hau Maka Lucas (2009), by Teodósio Batista Ximenes, as in Iha Nafatin Dalan atu Fila (2011), by Maximus Tahu, the protagonist’s mother is the figure whose pardon each son desires. The two short novels written by young women (Istoria Kona-ba Nia (2012), by Judith de Sousa, and Knananuk husi Akamutu (2012), by Zelia X. Vital) are quite different in that both have female protagonists and provide domestic insights into the role and duties of mothers, in families that include both parents. As to Ariel Mota Alves’s Inan Ne’ebé Iha Bosok Ualu (2012), the title suggests that the mother has finally become the central character. This mother’s extreme selflessness may be an unintended outcome of a Christian education. However, her character and plot development do suggest disturbing changes that may be occurring in a society increasingly battered by conflicting economic needs and aspirations. This paper seeks explanations to these differing roles.

Some Reflections on the Setting of Economic Fundamentals in Timor-Leste – UNTAET and the NCC November 1999 – June 2000

Martin Hardie, University of Dili; Australian Catholic University; & Watugari Consultants

I arrived in Dili in late October 1999 working as a volunteer for CNRM. After initially helping to establish the first CNRM office in Timor-Leste after the 1999 Referendum I assisted the CNRM Transitional Council in the early meeting with UN SRSG Sergio Viera De Mello and UNTAET. After the establishment of the National Consultative Council I became the legal advisor to Avelino Coelho in the NCC. In this presentation, I will focus upon two issues – the adoption of the US Dollar as the official currency and the debates around tax laws in early 2000. My purpose is to unveil the manner of UNTAET consultation and importantly how all the basic macroeconomic fundamentals that continue to govern the Timorese economy were put in place prior to the Timorese people being able to exercise any notion of sovereignty over their own affairs. That is, how Timor was subsumed into the smooth space of the neoliberal Empire with only a muted and confined notion of national sovereignty. In these circumstances, we must be careful when we talk of such things as sovereignty, governance and the rule of law.

Seeding the Future: Community Research Processes to Build Capacity for Sustainable Community Seed Banking Systems in Timor Leste

Leonora da Costa, RAEBIA-TL

90% of farmers’ seed needs in Timor Leste are met by local/informal systems, (saving, reproducing, exchanging locally). This crucial informal seed system is in danger of breaking down and farmers are increasingly lacking access to quality seeds. RAEBIA’s community research in the form of seed security assessments in Batara (Manatutu), and Holorua (Manufahi) (first 2 in a series of 4), reveals key features for the effective capacity building for local seed security. This paper/ presentation will cover a short background on seed security, introduce the community seed security assessment methodology, present samples from the SSA’s in Batara and Holorua, and a key concluding section on women’s knowledge and experiences in seed savings as community seed banking moves forward in Timor Leste. RAEBIA Timor Leste ( is a national level NGO and working as a key partner of USC Canada in promoting biodiversity-based ecological agriculture for smallholder farmers in Timor Leste.

Good Agricultural Practice Approach to Increase Maize Production in Timor-Leste

Claudino Ninas Nabais, Januario Marçal, Guilherme Quintão, Benjamin Guterres, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries; UNTL; GIZ, German Cooperation

This research paper is to compare the application technology of Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and farmer’s own method on maize demonstration plots (demoplot). Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) in partnership with German Cooperation (GTZ, now GIZ) introduced the new agriculture technology package to increase maize productivity from the average 1.5t ha-1. The research was carried out on November 2012 to April 2013 in 210 of 420 villages from different types of agro-ecological with total of 205 demoplots. Three MAF’s recommended maize varieties, Sele, NAI and Noi-mutin were used. One Demoplot consisted with GAP technique against normal practices. Major yield determinants in the package were land preparation, plants distance with number of seeds per hole, time and frequency of weeding and pest and diseases control. The result showed that by implementing GAP technique could increase 61.2 % maize yield. At national average was 2.45 t ha-1 against 1.55 t ha-1with normal practices. The highest yield was found in Mehara, Lospalos, with 7.71t ha-1 over 1.79t ha-1. However, extension service is still considered as a major constraint to promote this technique.

Person as Debt: Personhood, Social Networks and the Role of Debt in East Timor

Kelly Silva & Daniel Simião, Universidade de Brasília

Based on ethnographic observations from more than ten years of research in East Timor, we explore the idea that being in debt is an important part of the constitution of person amongst Timorese people, as opposed to the category of slave - those who are not in a condition to be in debt to others. Focusing on debts established primarily, but not exclusively, through marriage exchanges, we argue that the value of personhood is strongly linked to an expanded network of relations. More than the notion of "person", the very notion of "relationship" is established through debts. In this sense, we propose the dissolution of the dichotomy between exchange and debts, analyzing debts as an important part of exchange regimes in East Timor.

Assessing the Implementation and Impact of Timor Workers in the Employment Permit System (EPS) of South Korea

José Viegas

How has South Korea’s Employment Permit System (EPS) been benefitting Timor-Leste? The question is reflecting the high unemployment rate in Timor-Leste. As the unemployment rate in the country is pervasive (e.g. 18% unemployment rate as of 2010), it is necessary to prepare work force for overseas market. Among the government to government cooperation, Korea’s EPS has allowed some 2,569 Timorese workers work in Korean companies. From year 2009 – 2015, some 2,048 Timorese workers have been sent to Korea to work (see data from SEPFOPE, March 2017). In terms of earning foreign exchange, Timor-Leste in the EPS scheme was significant. For example, the remittance at the end of December 2015 was up to 7,033,642,88USD. What motivates the remittance? How this remittance is diversified for sustainability? What are wage salaries and which country they intend to save/invest money for future plan? Why illegal stay continues? In 2016 August to November, the researcher documented more than 100 Timor workers in Korea to find out.

Oil, Debt and Sustainability: Timor-Leste’s Borrowing Plans and their Implications for the Future

Niall Almond, La’o Hamutuk. 2 MB PowerPoint or 2 MB PDF presentation, or Full paper (.3MB)

In 2012, Timor-Leste began borrowing money from international institutions to finance infrastructure projects, and since then it has signed twelve loan contracts. The country’s petroleum resources are almost depleted, and the non-oil economy has not substantially improved, with most growth since independence being fuelled by government spending of oil money. Agencies advising the government and other independent observers have warned the government about taking on debt given the current economic outlook; however, the 2017 State Budget plans to borrow more than ever before for much larger projects than those covered by currently-agreed loans. This paper will examine the Timor-Leste government’s current and future borrowing, the projects that are being prioritised, and the dangers this poses to Timor-Leste’s economic sustainability. It also discusses the experiences of other countries which took on large amounts of debt and found themselves unable to pay, and suggests how Timor-Leste can avoid the same fate.

Education for What? Sources of Disagreement in Educational Policy-Making

Helen Hill, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e; Victoria University

This paper uses historical material to try to explain why in 2017, 15 years after the Restoration of Independence, a high level of disagreement between and within political parties over educational policy remains. This makes evidence-based policy-making difficult and could threaten an innovative curriculum for Escola Basica introduced by the Vice-Minister of Education. It will be argued that despite Timorese always giving education high priority, Timor-Leste, unlike many Pacific island nations, has never had a wide-ranging debate on the aims and purposes of education, and as a result, totally opposed assumptions remain as to what a good post-colonial education system would look like. The coming of the Sustainable Development Goals, requiring ‘quality education’ to be universally accessible means it is urgent to reach agreement on what is meant by quality at all levels of education.

Experiences of Timorese Language Teachers in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Continuing Professional Development (CPD)

Bernardete Luan, Esperanca Lopes, & Monty King, English Language Institute (LELI); University of Western Australia

MOOCs have been proposed as a ‘game changer’ for higher education in the Global South (Warusavitarana, Dona, Piyathilake, Epitawela, & Edirisinghe, 2014). Studies suggest that facilitated MOOCs, known as ‘MOOC+’ or ‘MOOC camps’, can help participants accrue social and cultural capital (Maitland & Obeysekare, 2015) and develop local communities of practice (Firmansyah & Timmis, 2016). However, key barriers to uptake include limited Internet access, participant literacies, and the local relevance of course content (Liyanagunawardena, Williams, & Adams, 2013). Seven Timorese language teachers at LELI participated in a British Council/Futurelearn course entitled Teaching for Success: Lessons and Teaching in March 2017. Participants were observed within weekly ‘study groups’ involving co-located viewing of video lectures and discussions, and were interviewed in a focus group at the completion of the course. Interviews allow the social construction of knowledge (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009) and the authors draw on this knowledge to outline how MOOCs could enable future teacher CPD in Timor-Leste.

Searching for Leadership Education Sustainable in Timor-Leste in the Case of Hopeseller Leadership Program

Chang Won Choi, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Leadership is recognized as a critical source of competitiveness for organizations while leadership education has been spread out globally. However, why leadership education has not been proliferated in Timor-Leste? This study is case study on symbolic leadership program, Hopeseller in Timor-Leste holding the longest period of its activities (2009-2017). Analysis is based on theoretical and managerial comparison with "PLB" in Harvard Business Review, and popular „Franklin Covey‟. “What are prerequisite requirements for Timor friendly leadership program?” “What kinds of demands Timor-Leste has?”, “What Timorese needs to prepare leadership competency, despite unaware-but-high- learning value?”, “What kinds embedded strategy inside programs will fit for Timorese?”, “Which leadership theories will be suitable?” “What is a priority of educational content?” These are examples which will be discussed.
* PBL stands for Personal Branding Leadership, and PLB stands for Personal Leadership Brand.

Should I do What my Mobile Phone Tells Me to Do? Effects of a Health Program on Maternal Behavior in Timor-Leste

Sarah Meyanathan, Ruben Lopes, & Olinda Baptista (Mary Anne Mercer, Susan Thompson, & Marisa Hofstee), Health Alliance International; University of Washington

Background: Liga Inan (“connecting mothers”) is an mHealth program in Timor-Leste that links pregnant women with health information and health providers via mobile phones.
Methods: The program conducted baseline and endline surveys in intervention and control districts to assess the
extent to which the program was associated with significant changes in maternal health behaviors.
Results: There were significant increases in facility based deliveries, home deliveries with a skilled attendant, and postpartum visits in the implementation district. However, there were no increases in key home practices and knowledge, such as knowing danger signs.
Conclusions: This program found limitations in the use of SMS as a communication channel for home behavior change. The 160 character maximum for a SMS places strict limitations on conveying technical topics. Powerful cultural beliefs may override the SMS. Furthermore, midwives may have prioritized other messages during antenatal care, such as delivery in a health facility.

Exploring Contexts of Maternity Care in Timor-Leste

Rosey King, Federation University

This research explores community decision making and choices for care during pregnancy and childbirth among stakeholders and community members in three regions of Timor Leste.
Objectives: Examine current national policy approaches and how they are enacted in Timor Leste?
Explore the circumstances surrounding choice and decision making about care during pregnancy and childbirth
Identify women’s expectation and aspirations for care during pregnancy and childbirth
This is a qualitative research project utilising a critical feminist ethnographic approach. Health care providers, (stakeholders) and community, (women of reproductive age) are interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participant observation of health care delivery in antenatal clinics and mixed gender focus group discussion will also be conducted. The conference presentation will be reporting on the research methodology and data collection process to date. Data analysis is in early stages.

Decision-Making Pathways for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Marriage in Timor-Leste

Deborah Cummins & Mira Fonseca, UNFPA

This research explores the consequences of early marriage and the impact of teenage pregnancy for young women in Timor-Leste. 16% of young girls between the age of 15 and 19 are married in Timor-Leste (Census, 2015). For these young women, marriage signifies the end of their youth and propels them into parenthood. The birth of their first child constrains their ability to complete their education, pursue their economic independence and diminishes aspirations for their future. This qualitative research with 24 teenager girls, their partners, parents, teachers and health workers, highlights the limitations in their comprehensive sexual knowledge, their lack of agency in their first sexual encounters, which are often coercive in nature, and their fears of abandonment and community stigma overriding the implications of a teenage pregnancy. This research was conducted to inform recommendations from the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Parliamentarian’s Conference held in Dili in 2016.

Perceptions of Reproduction and Demography in Same, Manufahi

Laura Burke, University of Kent

My ethnographic research examines local interpretations of reproduction and demography in the context of Timor-Leste's rapid population growth. It asks: what are the local meanings and social significance of reproduction in Timor-Leste? And how do these perceptions relate to the way people imagine and create the the next generation? This paper presents the preliminary findings from reproductive history interviews and participant observation conducted with families in Same, Manufahi. It aims to provide an ethnographic case study to complement demographic data on reproduction from the Population and Housing Census and Demographic Health Survey. I further examine how the collection and dissemination of such data is interpreted in Same, thus investigating how local meanings of reproduction intersect with national and international perceptions about reproduction and population growth. This research hopes to provide local insight to the efforts being made to improve maternal and reproductive health, and gender equality in Timor-Leste.

Utiliza Komentáriu Kliente nian hodi Haforsa Kualidade Klinikál

Alexandrina Marques da Silva no Agapito da Silva Soares

Antesedente: Komentáriu kliente nu'udar aspeitu importante ida ba kualidade klinikál no kuidadu kliente sentralizadu. Komentáriu kliente ne’ebé di’ak mak inklui parte pozitivu no negativu hosi esperiensia kliente nian kona-ba fornesidór nia maneira amigavel no ijiene ba ambiente. Iha dezafiu sira bainhira halibur komentáriu ne’ebé util. Metodolojia: Marie Stopes Timor-Leste (MSTL) hametin sistema komentáriu kliente liuhosi introdúz sistema foun hodi halibur komentáriu, diskusaun no responde ba komentáriu. Ida ne’e inklui komentáriu verbal no komentáriu eskrita, ne’ebé halibur hosi membru ekipa MSTL, esternál enumeradór, kaixa sujestaun anónimo no servisu liña kontaktu. Xave rezultadu: Komentáriu kliente nian agora dadaun halibur ho regulár, analiza hosi membru ekipa MSTL iha nivel organizasaun. Kualidade hosi komentáriu iha oi-oin, maibé jeralmente util no produtivu. Planu asaun hala’o hodi responde ba komentáriu. Diskusaun: Rona no foti asaun ba komentáriu kliente sai importante wainhira dezenvolve aprosimasaun ba kuidadu kliente-sentralizadu. Hodi reforsa sistema komentáriu kliente, MSTL bele rona ba parte pozitivu nian ho di’ak liu.

Projetu Pintatura Avó: Haforsa Ligasaun Entre Jerasaun Foun no Jerasaun Tuan Liu Husi Projetu Arte Kriativu

Cesario Lourdes, Many Hands International

Juventude Timorense agora sai boot iha mundu ne'ebé diferente loos husi sira-nia avó nia tempu. Enkuantu avó sira hala'o papél importante atu liga joven ba sira-nia kultura, joven sira mós oferese ligasaun diretamente ba ideia no esperiénsia foun. Iha Munisipiu Lautem, juventude iha asesu ba klase arte lokál liu husi Many Hands International. Iha projetu ida avó sira fahe istória no juventude sira dokumenta istória ne'e uza métodu pintatura, filmazen no testu. Aprezentasaun ida-ne'e hatudu ezemplu arte sira-ne'e no oferese dokumentasaun kriativu kona-ba povu ki'ik ne'ebé moris loron-loron ho baibain de'it maibé moris iha tempu ne'ebé laos baibain. Rezultadu husi avaliasaun projetu ne'e hatudu katak prosesu kriativu fó jerasaun rua ne'e koñesimentu foun kona-ba sira-nia esperiénsia moris ne'ebé diferente, halo relasaun forte liu tan, no aumenta sentimentu liga ho tempu uluk no tempu agora.

Rezultadu husi Projetu Peskiza mak Dokumenta Kostume Kultura ne'ebé Relasiona ho Fatin Arte Fatuk Sira iha Tutuala

Ildefonso da Silva

Tutuala mak área ida ne'ebé riku liu ho arte fatuk iha Asia Sudeste. Iha fatin hamutuk 30 ho arte fatuk iha fatuk-kuak nia didin, inklui pintatura, no tuir estimasaun arte sira-ne'e husi tinan 2000-3000 liu ba. Vida moris tradisionál forte loos iha Tutuala no povu sira halo tuir kostume kultura ne'ebé sira-nia bei'ala hatutan ba sira. Kultura ne'e kria ligasaun entre ema Fataluku ho sira-nia bei'ala no istória uluk. Iha tinan ikus ne'e, Many Hands International servisu hamutuk ho Sekretáriu de Estadu ba Turizmu, Arte no Kultura atu dokumenta kostume kultura ne'ebé relasiona ho fatin arte fatuk sira iha Tutuala. Projetu ne'e implementa durante periodu ida bainhira Sekretáriu de Estadu hala'o investigasaun, protesaun no promosaun arte fatuk iha Postu Administrativu Lautem. Relatóriu ida-ne'e aprezenta rezultadu husi projetu peskiza ida-ne'e, ne'ebé hatudu katak iha elementu kultura atuál ne'ebé refleta imajen husi arte fatuk no sei implementa beibeik ohin loron.

Etnobotânica de Timor-Leste: Comunicar o Conhecimento Medicinal Secular Através da Ilustração Botânica

Teresa Cunha, Fernando Correia, Paulo Silveira, e Maria do Céu de Madureira Universidade de Aveiro; Universidade de Coimbra

O estudo etnobotânico, aplicado ao conhecimento da medicina tradicional em Timor-Leste, irá permitir uma melhor compreensão das práticas e efeitos associados, viabilizando a sua utilização potencial, de uma forma racional, eficaz e segura e contribuindo desta forma para uma melhoria dos cuidados de saúde no futuro. Para além disso, possibilita a identificação e diferenciação das plantas com potencial valor medicinal, a validar em posteriores estudos etnofarmacológicos. Para a caracterização e divulgação deste conhecimento, a ilustração científica apresenta-se como um instrumento de comunicação científica singular que permite descrever visualmente as espécies com maior valor etnobotânico no país. Através da criação de imagens criteriosamente interpretadas e objetivas, na forma de estampas botânicas, sintetiza-se e simplifica-se a mensagem científica, aumentando a sua legibilidade e a apreensão, quer pelo especialista, quer pelo leigo. Deste modo são exploradas as potencialidades da tradução da linguagem científica verbal para um código científico visual universal, capaz de promover o conhecimento científico num contexto com diferentes grupos etnolinguísticos.

Sé Mak Tesi Lia?”— Interlegalidade e Hibridismo das Estruturas de Resolução e Mediação de Conflitos em Timor-Leste

Beatriz Carvalho, Maria Paula Meneses, Marisa Ramos Gonçalves, e Sara Araújo, Comissão para a Reforma Legislativa e do Sector da Justiça (CRL), Timor-Leste; Universidade de Coimbra

Este estudo tem como objectivo identificar as estruturas de resolução/mediação de conflitos disponíveis na sociedade Timorense e compreender como estas funcionam e procuram alcançar uma ‘justiça justa’. Adoptou-se uma metodologia extensiva que consistiu no mapeamento destas estruturas em todo o território, através da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas sobre os sistemas de justiça presentes em cada contexto. Tendo-se identificado que a maior parte dos conflitos são resolvidos fora do sistema judicial formal, procurou-se compreender a articulação entre as esferas da família alargada (Uma Lisan), das lideranças comunitárias, das agências do Estado e das organizações da sociedade civil nacionais e internacionais nos processos de mediação/resolução de conflitos. As percepções dos vários actores e estruturas sobre os conceitos de justiça e processos normativos, especificamente sobre a lei da violência doméstica e sobre os conflitos de terra, revelaram a necessidade de um diálogo mais intenso entre o Estado e as comunidades.

O Papel da Mãe em Alguns dos Primeiros Romances de Timor-Leste

Isabel Moutinho, La Trobe University

Mães altruistas e abnegadas são personagens menores essenciais em vários dos romances curtos que têm ganho o primeiro prémio no concurso ‘Istoria Timor’. Em Hau Maka Lucas (2009), de Teodósio Batista Ximenes, tanto como em Iha Nafatin Dalan atu Fila (2011), de Maximus Tahu, a mãe do protagonista é a figura a cujo perdão cada um dos filhos aspira. Dois romances escritos por mulheres (Istoria Kona-ba Nia (2012), de Judith de Sousa, e Knananuk husi Akamutu (2012), de Zélia X. Vital) são bastante diferentes, já que ambos têm protagoginastas femininas e nos dão perspetivas domésticas do papel das mães em famílias que incluem pai e mãe. Finalmente, em Inan Ne’ebé Iha Bosok Ualu (2012), de Ariel Mota Alves, o título sugere que a mãe se tornou personagem principal. O altruismo e a extrema abnegacão desta mãe podem ser um resultado acidental da educação cristã. Contudo, a trama do livro sugere mudanças preocupantes que talvez estejam a transformar uma sociedade timorense sacudida por necessidades e aspirações económicas opostas. Este estudo procura explicações para estes papéis.

As Bayu-Undan Dries Up: Challenges and Opportunities

Charles Scheiner, La’o Hamutuk, 9 MB PowerPoint or 3 MB PDF presentation, or Full paper (3MB)

Revenues from petroleum may no longer be able to feed Timor-Leste’s economy and state finances, and the nation must find other nutrition. For the first 14 years of independence, money from oil and gas exports – primarily the Bayu-Undan field – nourished the creation of democratic state institutions and helped people emerge from a generation of brutality, war and devastation. But the oil era is ending: 97% of the expected revenue from developed fields had been received by the end of 2016, and prospects for additional extractive income are uncertain. This paper will explore the history of oil and gas exploration and production in Timor-Leste, possibilities for additional petroleum and mineral revenues, and the recurring dream of external sources of wealth. It will also touch on some more practical and sustainable alternatives based on the country’s human and renewable resources.

An Assessment of Economic Benefits of the Reform Drive in Timor-Leste

George Eric Ereu, Childfund Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste has demonstrated the appetite for enhanced economic capacity. The Fiscal Reform Commission set up in 2015, aimed at raising domestic non-petroleum revenue from the current rate of 6% GDP to 15% in 2020, through introduction of taxes including VAT expected in 2019 and through effective collection of personal income Tax, Business and customs duty. The aim is to increase domestic revenues, mitigate poverty and attract foreign investments. While acknowledging Timor-Leste’s motivation for policy reform, many lessons can be drawn from political economy studies. A common lesson learned is the necessity to create a coordinated team capable of responding to events, unforeseen or anticipated, as the reform process unfolds. If Timor-Leste adopts such a measure in the ongoing reform program, the dividends would be visible.

Livelihood Diversity and Dynamism in Timor-Leste; Insights for Coastal Resource Governance and Livelihood Development

David J. Mills, Alexander Tilley, Mario Pereira, Denis Hellebrandt, Avelino Pereira Fernandes, & Philippa J. Cohen, WorldFish Timor-Leste; James Cook University; University of East Anglia; & Roman Luan

Coastal communities within small island developing states are typically highly dependent on fisheries and other natural resource-based livelihoods. However, specialisation as a ‘fisher’ is rare compared to diverse livelihoods that can be adapted as opportunities and challenges emerge. Understanding this dynamic “livelihood landscape” is important for improving governance and livelihood opportunities associated with natural resources. Using data from 495 households across 15 communities on Atauro Island, Timor-Leste, this study evaluates the importance of fisheries within a suite of livelihoods; the correlation of livelihoods structure with wellbeing; and the spatial and temporal variation of those livelihoods. Activities linked to primary production were nominated by 67% of households as their primary livelihood, 41% fished, and of those 54% considered fishing their primary livelihood. Almost all households (95%) owned livestock, and even respondents who considered themselves ‘fishers’ ranked livestock disease, rather than fisheries related concerns, as their most critical livelihood challenge. Engagement in fishing varied by location and time of year. Communities in more protected locales fished throughout the year, and had less diverse livelihoods. This study highlights that interventions focused on self-identified ‘fishers’ would only engage a fraction of the population that derive benefit from fisheries resources, would likely overlook the most prevalent challenges fishers face, and would focus on those with relatively high food security and income. Measures of wellbeing were better explained by geography and sociocultural settings, rather than dominant income sources. The results emphasise the value of cross-sector development interventions informed by contextualised analysis of livelihoods and wellbeing outcomes.

Preliminary Characterisation of Timor-Leste Sardine Fisheries from a Food Security Perspective

Kim Hunnam & Imelda A. D. C. Carlos, Charles Darwin University; Australian National University

Addressing food insecurity is a priority issue in Timor-Leste. Small-scale fisheries targeting small pelagic fish are thought to make useful contributions to household food security and coastal livelihoods. This research is investigating the Timor-Leste sardine fishery from a food security perspective by considering the availability of the resource, physical and economic access by consumers, and consumption patterns. Based on preliminary findings, sardine fisheries in some locations appear to be associated with rainfall and river flow. Fishers use gillnets from motorised and non-motorised canoes to catch a number of sardine species, as well as other small pelagic fish. Sardines are a popular food among Timorese consumers as they are more affordable than large fish. Research is ongoing, with the overarching aim to identify opportunities for delivering and sustaining greater benefits from this social-ecological food system, in ways which are relevant to the local context, ecologically sustainable, equitable and financially viable.

Whale and Dolphin Monitoring and Marine Ecotourism Training and Development in Timor-Leste

Jose Quintas (Karen Edyvane, Simon Allen, Michael Double, Jen Craighill, & Sean Clement), Charles Darwin University; Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e; University of Western Australia; Australian Marine Mammal Centre; Blue Ventures, Dili; Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Government of Timor-Leste

Previous studies in Timor-Leste have identified the significant economic potential of marine ecotourism, particularly whale and dolphin watching. In this paper we outline our latest efforts in developing a whale and dolphin ecotourism industry, working collaboratively with key project partners (government, local fishing communities, dive tour operators, eco-volunteers, development partners) - including cetacean monitoring, ecotourism training, and promotion and marketing. We also report on preliminary findings of cetacean diversity from a combination of ongoing dedicated surveys and incidental sightings and also, traditional ecological knowledge mapping. We confirm the region as a cetacean biodiversity hotspot, with at least 24 species residing in or passing through Timor-Leste’s waters. Further, we confirm an annual migration of pygmy blue whales (Austral-Indonesian population) and, importantly, provide evidence that the region is a calving area for this species. We also argue that Timor-Leste provides some of the best and most accessible, whale-watching in the world, particularly for this species. While cetacean tourism hold major economic potential for Timor-Leste, particularly for impoverished, coastal fishing communities - critical monitoring data, further training and capacity building, and ecotourism development is needed to guide the sustainable growth of this industry.

Timor-Leste: From the Lens of Binary Oppositions

Josh Trindade, Presidential Palace, Timor-Leste  (PDF, Video)

Building on my earlier work (Trindade 2012), this paper examines dualism concepts within Timor-Leste society focusing on two areas of discussions. Firstly, the paper will explore the existence of binary opposition within the context of Timor-Leste social organization. Secondly, at practical level, the paper will discuss the binary opposition within Timor-Leste worldview, the belief system, the idea of gender, the political system, the marriage practice and the relationship between outsider/foreign (malae, masculine) and insider/indigenous (Timor, feminine). The paper will focus on how Timorese people as individual and as group operate within two worlds that stand in opposition but work to complement one another. In addition, the paper will also analyze how the medium world (i.e. neither masculine nor feminine, neither inside nor outside) is defined within Timor-Leste cosmology.

Conflict Resolution and the Making of Personhood: A Case Study

Daniel S. Simião, Universidade de Brasília

This paper explores two interpretations on the role of conflict resolution in the making of person in Timor-Leste, based on a four years case study from a village of the Liquiçá District. In the one hand, I propose that many conflicts are related to the perception of misrecognition of personal and family “dignity”. In these cases, practices of conflict resolution, in the form they take – objectified by the exchange of goods that symbolize the nature of specific relations through which a person is constituted – may be taken as politics of recognition for the social value of persons and groups. In the other hand, I understand that keeping personal feuds may also be used as a way for claiming individual agency over gift exchanges among family groups in Timor-Leste. In a context where every action refers to the agency of house ancestors and individual decisions may be terribly dangerous if not sanctioned by those who act as mediators to the ancestors, to postpone the resolution of a family contend seems to be a mechanism with symbolic efficiency to enhance the agency of oneself, helping to singularize an individual inside the network of mutual relations which constitutes the person.

The Relationship of Lulik and the Indigenous Music of Timor Leste

Ros Dunlop, Tekee Media Inc.

This paper looks at the relationship between the indigenous music and its material objects, the musical instruments and lulik. This relationship is not something easily settled or verified because it is both hidden and ancient. Life for the East Timorese is made up of many parts and music is just one part that enhances a whole. The Mambae is one of the oldest ethnolinguistic groups in Timor Leste. The Mambae origin myth of Mau-Lelo Bui-Lelo is the lynchpin between two worlds: the world of darkness that existed before lulik and the world of light that is the world governed by lulik and provides a good example of the role of music in multimedia performances and also of the interrelationship between society, culture and lulik. Further elements are discussed within the spectrum of indigenous music, such as the musical instruments themselves and the activities employed in their use.

The Application of the Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm in Teaching

Sidelizio Ornai Pereira, Instituto São João de Brito

The purpose of the study was to determine the integration of the five elements of Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm (IPP), namely: Context, Experience, Reflection, Action and Evaluation in Teaching at Colégio de Santo Inácio de Loiola (CSIL) as observed by the students. The study used the descriptive research design. The respondents’ overall evaluation shows that the students have high appreciation of their teachers’ integration of Context, Experience, Reflection, Action and Evaluation in the teaching process. This indicates that the students like their teachers and that they recognize the application of IPP in the learning and teaching process. The study shows affirmation, recognition and appreciation that Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm is accepted by the teachers and is recognized by the students. Thus this is truly a good beginning as the school has just started its operation in 2013. Therefore, this study serves as a reference for CSIL in developing teachers, teaching style, and their professional development and as an inspiration in disseminating the philosophy of IPP.

The Effectiveness of Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Teaching Computer Science Students at Dili Institute of Technology

Adelina da Conceição & Umbelina Cardoso, Dili Institute of Technology

Dili Institute of Technology is in the process of moving from Indonesian to English as a medium of instruction. In 2016 we started giving all new computer science students an intensive year-long English course, with the intention that they would undertake some future subjects in English. One lecturer, however, started teaching his Algorithm and Data Structure I class in English in third term of that year. In this research, we conducted face to face interviews with the algorithm lecturer, English lecturers and the students, to find out if there was a significant correlation between students’ grades in English and Algorithm, when using English as the medium of instruction. The results indicated that there was a correlation, but that it wasn’t straight forward. Despite the challenge, 44% of the students said they preferred to use English as the medium of instruction. And 80% said they felt free to talk in class with the teacher and their classmates, while 64% said they felt comfortable in class.

Why Learn English? A Case Study of Student Motivation at Dili Institute of Technology (DIT)

Melky Fridus Ladis Costa Akoyt & Luis Ximenes Santos, Dili Institute of Technology

Motivation is one of the key factors driving language learning success. Without student motivation, there is no pulse; there is no life in the class. This paper is an attempt to look at what motivates the students of Dili Institute of Technology (DIT) to learn English and the relationship between students’ motivation and their English achievement. In particular, it investigates whether the students are driven by intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, and the impact of the motivation on students’ achievement. The method used in this research is questionnaires to elicit information about factors which contribute to students’ motivation in learning English. The sample is 80 students from the first term of the 2017 academic year. This research will help the teachers build on the students’ interest in learning English, and also will help the students to be aware of their own motivation and of importance of their motivation for success in learning English.

Adapting the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) Tool in Timor-Leste – A Methodological Reflection

Gianna Bonis-Profumo, Charles Darwin University  PDF

This paper aims to describe the process and discuss the challenges of adapting an internationally validated tool, the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI), to the Timorese context. The WEAI is a survey-based index designed to measure the empowerment, agency, and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector. This innovative index creates a simple and visible figure, enabling quantification and comparison across locations and time. Never used in Timor-Leste before, the WEAI requires adaptation, translation and validation prior its utilization to be methodologically sound. Such process involves reflecting local conditions and productive activities, ensuring the original questions meaning and usability by respondents, and piloting the adapted tool using cognitive pre-testing principles. Following, the WEAI-TL will be refined by Timorese experts through a results and translation review, and a final back-translation. The WEAI-TL will be applied to research whether greater women’s decision-making power in agriculture is positively associated with child dietary outcomes among farming households in rural Timor-Leste.

Moringa for Nutrition Security: The Challenge of Balancing Outcomes for Nutrition and Women’s Empowerment

Roumaldo Amaral & Domingos Aquino Brandao, HIAM Health

Moringa is a highly nutritious leafy green. It grows easily in harsh environments and is endemic in Timor-Leste. In mid-2016, HIAM Health commenced a ‘moringa for nutrition security’ pilot in Bobanaro focusing on women and involving a feedback loop for progressive refinement of methods. In early 2017, HIAM Health interviewed 71 women participants and determined that demand for moringa is outstripping supply. While high demand is a positive outcome, it is also confounding follow-up study on baseline nutrition data. Sale of moringa was prohibited as a condition of project participation, but sharing is a cultural norm. Participants appear to have inadvertently created gaps in home consumption by readily distributing to non-participants. The feelings of pride overwhelmingly reported by participants may indicate that women’s empowerment benefits have unintentionally impeded the nutritional progress of direct beneficiaries. Thus objectives for nutrition and empowerment may continue to compete until demand can be fully met.

Turning Traditions into Livelihoods – How the Timorese NGO Empreza Diak is Reviving Cultural Traditions to Build Better Futures for Rural Women in Timor-Leste

Joana Gusmão & Ariana Almeida, Empreza Diak

In Timor-Leste 70% of the population lives in rural areas, 40% survives on less than US$1 per day, 90% of consumed goods are imported. What livelihoods opportunities are available to these communities, specially for women – who are particularly vulnerable, suffering discrimination in health, education, employment, access to justice and too often being survivors of violence? How are they included in the country’s development efforts? The program Turning Traditions into Livelihoods, launched by Empreza Diak NGO* in 2013, is identifying and reviving cultural traditions in Timor-Leste, generating a sustainable income and helping build better futures for rural women, through research, training, product development, mentoring and access to market. Working with over 220 women and approximately 80 men across the country, but with a focus in Atauro, Empreza Diak is revolutionizing the way women see themselves and their role in their communities, turning silent women into inspiring stories of resilience and achievement. * Empreza Diak (which means Good Business) is an award-winning Timorese organization that works to end poverty in Timor-Leste. Its mission is to economically empower the women and men living in poverty in Timor-Leste by creating new livelihood opportunities, providing innovative training and starting small businesses to build better futures.

Malisan Rekursu iha Timor-Leste: Hosi Jestaun Fundu Petrolíferu no Polítika Orsamentál Timor-Leste

Juvinal Dias, La’o Hamutuk   PowerPoint ka PDF aprezentasaun, ka artigu tomak (.5MB)

Iha 2005, Timor-Leste estabelese Fundo Petrolíferu nudár meius investimentu finanseiru atu jere nia rendimentu Petrolíferu bai benefísiu jerasaun ohin no futuru nian. Fundu ne’e iha nia regra hodi investe iha forma asoens no títulu estadu. Nune'e mós estabelese prinsipiu sustentabilidade nudár matadalan bainhira halo levantamentu ba Orsamentu Jerál estadu tinan-tinan. Fundu sai tiha fontes prinsipál ba Timor-Leste nia ekonomia. Iha levantamentu lubuk Fundu liu Rendimentu Sustentável Estimativa (RSE) ne’ebé sei fó impaktu ba sustentabilidade Timor-Leste. Levantamentu sira ne’e maiór parte atu finansia mega projetu sira ne’ebé Governu deside ona iha nia Planu Estratéjiku Dezenvolvimentu Nasional 2011-2030. Peskiza ida ne’e sei sukat oinsá jestaun Fundu Petrolíferu no polítika fiskál hadalan malisan rekursu mai Timor-Leste, oinsá ho futuru Fundu, retornu investimentu no planu levanta RSE liu dala tolu kada tinan hosi 2018 – 2021. Referénsia mak Orsamentu Jerál Estadu, Relatóriu sira hosi Banku Sentrál ANPM, PEDN, Lei Fundu Petrolíferu, no mós relatóriu sira seluk.

Alliansa Ida Atu Hasa’e Kapasidade Promosaun Saude Komunitaria hodi Hamenus Uja Tabaku iha Timor-Leste

Thomas Lopes, Many Hands International

Promosaun saúde komunidade propoin ona hanesan estratéjia ida ne’ebé adota ba prevensaun uzu tabaku. Maske Timor-Leste kontinua sai nuudar nasaun kiak liu iha Ázia, rendimentu ema Timor iha tinan hirak ikus asosiadu ho uzu tabaku nebe mos aumenta. Ho taxa 61%, nebe avalia iha tinan 2011, sai hanesan taxa nebe aas liu iha Ásia. Relatóriu ne'e deskreve esforsu atu hamenus uzu tabaku iha Timor-Leste liu husi Aliansa promosaun saúde komunidade. Atividade sira ne'ebé deskreve inklui: konsultasaun opiniaun lider 50 kona-ba prevensaun tabaku; planu atividade estratéjiku ne'ebé dezenvolve iha forum promosaun saúde komunitária; no avaliasaun ba progresu nasionál kona-ba indikador sira husi Convesaun Organizasaun Mundiál Saúde (OMS). Dezenvolvimentu Aliansa no ninia atividade fornese studu kazu ida hodi apoia efikásia ho savi inkilinu importante ba enkuadramentu estratéjiku promosaun saúde no sujere katak bele halo abordajen ida-ne'ebé adota prevensaun uza tabaku iha Ázia no nasaun sira ne'ebé iha hela dezenvolvimentu nia laran.

Análize Liután ba Rezultadu Estudu Nabilan nian kona-ba Saúde no Esperiénsia Moris

Justino Sarmento Amaral, Xian Warner, no Tamara Failor, Fundasaun Ázia

Iha 2015, Fundasaun Ázia hala’o ona Nabilan nia estudu liña-baze, levantamentu bazeia ba populasaun iha Timor-Leste kona-ba prevalensia no pepetrasaun husi violénsia hasoru feto no labarik, no fatór risku sira husi violénsia ne’e. Tuir análize uluk nian, dadus hatudu ligasaun entre esperiénsia sira husi abuzu labarik ho violénsia parseiru íntimu, no fraku saúde mentál entre mane no feto sira. Trauma sira relasiona ho konflitu sai fatór risku ida ba mane sira ne’ebé uza violénsia. Ida ne’e hatudu katak aprosimasaun sira iha Timor-Leste presiza hasa’e mane sira-nia asesu ba servisu saúde mentál no asegura apoiu psikolójiku ba labarik sira ne’ebé esperiénsia ou haree violénsia. Aprezentasaun ida ne’e sei análize dadus adisionál hala’o husi Fundasaun Ázia, atu esplora tan asosiasaun sira entre feto sira-nia esperiénsia violénsia husi parseiru íntimu no mane sira-nia uza violénsia hasoru parseiru íntimu, no kondisaun saúde mentál sira hanesan trauma no depresaun. Ida ne’e evidénsia foun ne’ebé informa aprosimasaun sira agora no iha futuru hodi prevene violénsia no hadi’ak rezultadu saúde mentál sira ba ema Timor-Leste.

Cooperação Jurídica Internacional e Cenários de Transnacionalização e Desestabilização

Cláudio Renato dos Santos Souza, Universidade Federal do Rio

A presente proposta tem como objetivo restituir o campo de investigação que estou realizando desde Janeiro de 2017 sobre cooperação jurídica Internacional e implantação do sistema de justiça em Timor Leste. Trata-se de um etnografia multissituada a partir de uma perspectiva latouriana do ator rede, na qual a estrutura é um verbo, uma forma de analisar a realidade social a partir dos processos locais de orquestração social, uma perspectiva que direciona o seu olhar e interesse em seguir os caminhos com os quais ideias, ideologias e dinâmicas jurídicas transnacionais passam a circular como se estivessem desprovidos das disputas sociais com as quais estão vinculadas e serem transplantadas a outros espaços. Nesses termos, procuro analisar as formas alternativas de resolução de conflitos como uma semântica transnacional que tem sido utilizada alhures com grande entusiasmo como uma economia politica de conciliação eficiente.

Influências da CPLP na Lei de Drogas em Timor Leste: Um Estudo Sobre o Paradigma Prevenção – Criminalização e Seus Efeitos Práticos na Realidade Local

Andréa Madalena Wollmann, Universidade de Coimbra

Em investigação científica patrocinada pela CAPES/Brasil com verbas da bolsa de Doutorado Pleno no Exterior, nos aprofundamos sobre a Lei de Drogas em Timor-Leste, seus efeitos e acordos internacionais sobre o tema, de que faz parte. Pretendemos nesta apresentação discorrer sobre os efeitos do paradigma preventivo-criminalizante adotado pela Lei e suas relações intrínsecas e extrínsecas com a Política de Guerra as drogas estadudinense, as orientações da CPLP e o papel que exerceu a política portuguesa no arcabouço legal a pouco aprovado. Os resultados finais apontados integrarão conteúdo mais amplo (ainda em desenvolvimento), juntamente com a análise de outras legislações da CPLP, compondo a tese Doutoral em Ciências Jurídico Filosóficas na Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Coimbra sob o título: Discursos humanitários e suas implicações (des)humanas no direito no séculos XX e XXI nos países de língua portuguesa: olhares lusófonos sobre a (des)criminalização do uso de psicoativos, uma abordagem filosófico jurídica.

Política Fundiária e Formação do Estado Nação em Timor Leste

Carlos Andrés Oviedo, Universidade de Brasília

Esta proposta tem por objetivo apresentar um mapeamento geral das práticas relacionadas com o regime de propriedade e titulação da terra em Timor Leste. Propõe-se, por tanto, analisar os conflitos e tensões associadas a convivencia de diferentes regimes legais para a legitimacao da propriedade junto com as praticas de governo implementadas pelo estado lestetimorense. A partir de uma etnografia dos processos estatais pretendo analisar (1) os procedimentos, tramites burocráticos e técnicas usadas por funcionários e agentes estatais envolvidos nos programas de titulação; (2) a margem de agencia que tais procedimentos deixam para as pessoas interessadas em acessar à terra e as ações mediante as quais essa agencia é efetivada; (3) à forma como a implementação dessas políticas e a relação entre burocratas e clientes se inserem nos complexos locais de governança e nos sistemas de propriedade e herança.

A Misplaced Optimism: Analysing Silences in the Indonesian Media on the 1995 Arrival in Australia of the Tasi Diak Timorese Asylum Seeker Boat

Vannessa Hearman, Charles Darwin University

The Indonesian government reported that a group of people had stolen the Tasi Diak 119, a wooden fishing boat, from the port of Hera in May 1995. Five days after the boat went missing, it arrived in Darwin, Australia, carrying seventeen Timorese: 15 young men, 2 women and a baby. The passengers claimed asylum on the grounds of Indonesian persecution. This paper compares the coverage by Indonesian and Australian media of this boat arrival to analyse what the Indonesian media blackout on this event tells us about the views within Indonesian government and armed forces on its reign in East Timor. Despite the spate of asylum seeking actions by Timorese youth since the previous year, Indonesian leaders seem to assure the public that Indonesia’s twenty-seventh province was in safe hands.

Forms of Everyday Resistance and its Relation with Independence Movements

Nuno Rodriguez Tchailoro

Natural corollary of Indonesian occupation is political movement and everyday resistance to against it. To fight against the occupation, individuals have different forms of resistance. Unfortunately, there have been very little studies on everyday resistance during the occupation. The preponderance of Timorese resistance studies has merely focused on national liberation struggle against Indonesian occupation. During the occupation, everyday resistance and independence struggle existed side by side. This article will focus on forms of everyday resistance in the occupied zones and its relation with independence movements.

An Outside View – The End of the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor as Seen from Darwin, Jakarta and West Timor

Steve Farram, Charles Darwin University

This paper primarily concerns observations made when I was a PhD student in Darwin, Jakarta and West Timor around the time of the end of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. I was in Darwin during the period leading up to the independence referendum and like countless others watched on in horror as the militias unleashed their terror. I had to travel to Jakarta to apply for research permits only days after the arrival of the Australian-led INTERFET force in Dili and experienced the strong reaction the independence vote created there. Later, I travelled through West Timor to conduct my research and saw many signs of the dislocation caused by the militias, including the many refugee camps. The local media and many discussions with local people further shaped my impressions.

Targeting Agricultural Interventions by Using Livelihood Zones

Robert L. Williams, Samuel Bacon, Luis de Almeida, & Willie Erskin, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Dili; University of Western Australia

A recent typology of farming systems for Timor Leste divided the villages of Timor-Leste into one of seven livelihood zones. Of the seven zones, three are based on irrigated rice production, two are coffee based livelihoods and the final two were non-specialised systems. The three rice based zones are based on the north coast, inland or south coast, the two coffee zones are divided separated on whether the suco is above or below 900m elevation. Finally there are two unspecialised zones, located on the north and southern side of the island. The paper describes the zones in terms of current and future agricultural productivity. The likelihood of significant impact of a wide range of interventions were estimated by an expert panel for each of the livelihood zones. It is concluded that the use of Agricultural Zones could assist in better directing which interventions to implement for each zone.

Prevalence of Toxocara Vitulorium in Bali Cattle Calves in Central Region of Timor Leste

Acacio Cardoso Amaral, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Toxocara vitulorum is widely distributed in countries where calves are not treated with anthelmintic regularly. The prevalence of T. vitulorum in East and West region have been reported (Amaral et al. 2015; Amaral et al. 2016), but the prevalence of this worm in Central region has never been reported. Therefore the objective of this research is to measure the prevalence of T. vitulorum in Central region of the country. The determination of sample size was done using the method of Cannon & Roe (1982). Site selection was done using the method of random sampling and sample selection was done using convenient sampling as described by Amaral et. al (2016). The result of the survey indicates that the overall prevalence of T. vitulorum in the Central region was 11.5% (7.3 – 16.8%).

Vaccination of Livestock in Timor Leste: How Successful is it?

Acacio Cardoso Amaral & Lindalva M. J. Viana, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

There are several livestock diseases that are endemic in Timor Leste. These are: Septicaemia epizootica (SE) and Brucellosis in both Bali cattle and buffaloes, Newcastle Disease in Village chickens and ducks, Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in pigs (Amaral 2016) and Surra in horses. To control these endemic diseases government through the Directorate of Veterinary Services of Ministry of agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) conduct routine vaccination against the endemic diseases. The vaccination program has been conducted since the year of 2000 up to now (2017). However there were no data on how successful the vaccination program conducted by government other than the one reported by UNTL in 2016 (Amaral 2016). The objective of this study was to know if the livestock vaccination rate of 2015 has increased compared to the livestock vaccination rate in 2014 as reported by Amaral (2016).

Halo Konservasaun no Estabelisimento ba Rekursos Genetiku Ai-han Lokal iha Rai Laran Periodo 2013 – 2016

Telesforo Fernandez Moniz no Manuel Xavier

Timor-Leste hanesan Nasaun sub-tropica ne’ebé iha rekursus naturais oin-oin liu-liu iha area agrikultura nia ne’ebé as, no iha valor ekologia bo’ot e iha variasaun oin-oin. Ita hatene katak Timor-Leste iha ai-han barak maibe seidaukbele identifika hotu ninian original, balun hanesan ai-han local ne’ebé bei-ala sira kuda no konsume kleur ona no balun mos mai husi rai liur no tinan barak ona maka halo adaptasaun diak ho iklima Timor-Leste nian. Tuir politika fini nasional 2012 katak Ai-han sira ne’e moris kleur ona iha rai laran hosi tinan 50 ba leten ida nee konsidera hanesan ai-han originalTimor-Leste nian (hak paten). Atu mantein nafatin ninian orizional maka MAP iha dirasaun DNPIEG iha tinan 2013-2016 halo ona konservasaun no estabelisimento ba rekursos genetika ba aihan lokal no introdus hanesan hare rai maran (hare metan, hare mean), fehuk midar, aifarina, batar ain naruk, kumbili, uhi. Hosi ai-horis sira nee, total maka ai-horis 9, variedade oin 99, nee’be konserva iha centro pesquisa 2, tinan konservasaun maka hahu hosi tinan 2013 too 2016 nee’be ho objective hodi mantein fini gentiko loka orizional rai laran hodi priense rekejito fini nasional. Atu nune sei salva ita nian riku soi a-ihan iha timor leste. Hosi total variedade ai-han ne’ebe hato’o iha leten katak, rekursos gentika ai-han sira ne’e halo esplorasaun hosi agrikultor nian too’s no mai hosi Distrito 13, ho fatin no iklima la hanesan balun hosi fatin as 900 m (foho) too tetuk 7m hosi tasi nebe. Oras nee dadaun ai- horis sira nee mantein hela iha Centro pesquisa Loes hanesan banko ba fini nian.

Testu Adaptivu Aihoris Trigu no Barley iha Timor-Leste Periodu 2013-2016

Apolinario Ximenes, Luis Pereira, Brian Monaghan, no Robert Wiliams, Pesquisas Estatistica Informasaun e Geografica (DNPEIG); Ministerio da Agricultura e Pescas; Seeds of Life (SoL); Ministerio da Agricultura e Pescas

Aihoris trigu (Wheat & Barley) Triticum aestivum L.Hordeum vulgare hanesan aihoris potensial ba ekonomia. Iha Timor Leste aihoris hirak ne’e diak iha area ekolojika rai malirin husi elevasaun 800-2000 metros husi tasi (ht). Ministerio da Agricultura e Pescas (MAP) serbisu hamutuk ho Agencia ACIAR liu husi programa Fini ba Moris (SoL) halo teste adaptivu hahu husi tinan 2013-2016. Implementasaun atividades ne’e halao iha suco Maubisse, Maubisse, Municipiu Ainaro. Dezenu pesquiza ne’ebe uza mak RAK fator ida ho tratamentu variedades terigu (wheat) (18), Barley (12), fini sira ne’e introdus liu husi programa SoL. Kada tratamentu replika dala tolu. Dadus ne’ebe rekolha analiza ho programa GenStat edisaun 18. Husi teste durante tinan tolu hatudu katak aihoris terigu ba variedades ne’ebe mak; fo mediu produsaun as mak WEE BILL1 W39 2.77 t/ha, nomos mediu produsaun husi tinan tolu tun mak variedades GBARUBYW23 1.71 t/ha. Aliende nee aihoris Barley hamutuk variedades sanulu resin rua, ne’ebe fo mediu produsaun as liu iha tinan tolu nia laran mak variedade ND23074 2.13 t/ha e nomos mediu produsaun husi tinan tolu n’ebe tun mak variedade Nakbatles 1.65 t/ha. Iha tempu oin mai to’os nain sira bele koko kuda variedade WEEBILL1W39 no ND23074.

Hosi Konseitu ba Implementasaun: Fatór Hirak Obstaklu ba Implementasaun Planu Estratéjiku Ministériu Agrikultura no Peskas (MAP)

Augusto Soares Barreto no Graciano Gomes Soares

Objetivu prinsipal hosi peskiza ida ne’e mak atu identifika no elabora fatór hirak obstaklu ba implementasaun Planu Estratéjiku Ministério de Agricultora e Pescas (MAP). Bazeia ba rezultadu, peskiza ida ne’e sei propoin rekomendasaun ka opsaun polítika ruma hodi hadi’ak implementasaun planu estratéjiku refere iha futuru. Planu Estratéjiku Dezenvolvimentu (PED 2011-2030) define setór minarai, agrikultura, no turizmu nu’udar prioridade ba dezenvolvimentu Timor-Leste ne’ebé iha longu praju (to’o tinan 2030) bele lori Timor-Leste ba sai pais ida ho rendementu mediu iha mundu rai klaran. Iha tinan 2013 MAP nuudar orgaun governu nian ida ne’ebé simu mandatu no responsabilidade atu hasa’e produsaun no produtividade iha sub-setor hanesan ai-han, pekuaria, peskas no floresta traduz metas dezenvolvimentu agríkola PED nian ba ninia Planu Estratéjiku (PE MAP 2014-2020). Planu Estratéjiku nu’udar “road map” ka matadalan ba MAP no parseiru sira atu atinji objetivu ba redusaun pobereza, garante seguransa ai-han no nutrisaun, promove kampo servisu no kresimentu ekonomia iha setór agríkola. Objetivu PE MAP nian mak atu hadi’ak efikasia no efisiensia dezempeñu governu nian hodi kontribui ba PED. Maski nune’e implementasaun Planu Estratéjiku durante ne’e la’os fasil. Iha estudu barak konaba dezenvolvimentu setór agríkola iha Timor-Leste maibe seidauk iha peskiza ida mak espesifikamente foka ba oinsa implementasaun planu estratéjiku MAP nian. Alein konsulta ho literatura hirak ezisti, peskiza ida ne’e bazeia ba semana haat halo investigasaun iha MAP Dili, MAP Municipio Baucau no MAP Municipio Bobonaro ho tarjetu 50 pessoas kobre sira iha kargu xefia no sira iha esperiénsia tinan naruk servisu iha MAP. Peskiza ne’e uza metodolojia kualitativu, estudu kazu atu buka hantene fatór sira obstaklu ba implementasaun Planu Estratéjiku. Rezultadu peskiza ne’e identifika katak fatór hirak sai obstaklu ba implementasaun planu estratéjiku MAP mak falta formalizasaun no hatuur iha enkuadramentu legal, utilizasaun instrumentu planeamentu nian inklui falta dadus kredivel, falta koñesimentu klean hosi funsionáriu inklui xefia sira tamba la halo sosializasaun/desiminasaun no formasaun, estrutura la forma tuir planu estratéjiku nia nesesidade, menus komunikasaun no orientasaun lideransa, falta apoiu hosi parseiru dezenvolvimentu sira, fraku iha monitorizsaun no avaliasaun, seidauk halo revizaun ba planu estratéjiku ne’e rasik, falta mekanizmu atu valoriza no estimula funsionáriu hirak mak halo servisu ho susesu, mudansa polítika iha governu, no mudansa ema hirak iha kargu xefia estrutura MAP nian.

Beyond Technological Complexities: ICT4D as an Agent of Societal Change in a Tribal-Traditional Society

Abel Pires da Silva , Australian National University

It has been very well argued in the information systems (IS) discipline that technology has important consequences in triggering change processes within the host institutions. The ICT4D literature also notes that the change processes have become more of socio-cultural and political natures rather than merely technical. We have observed that the complex change processes are even more profound when it comes to delivering ICT in a country such as East Timor with a society still categorised as tribal-traditional. This paper argues that for ICT4D to succeed, there should be a focus on addressing the fundamental change processes that are influenced by the existing practices within the concerned society. In this context, we observed that ICT4D projects may also play an important role as agents of change within the society, especially in trying to introduce new and often foreign concepts such as transparency, efficiency and accountability to the host society through technological innovations.

Attitudes Toward Tetun Dili

Melody Ann Ross, University of Hawai'i   PDF

The social role of languages in East Timor and the attitudes of Timorese toward language are understudied subjects that have implications for the successful enactment of language-related policy. In recent years, policy changes have shed light on the complex relationship between East Timorese and their language(s), particularly regarding Tetun Dili. This relationship can be explored in terms of language attitudes, which are the beliefs and stereotypes held by individuals about language. These beliefs are situated within the larger context of societal language ideologies. This paper uses survey and interview data from Timorese participants to identify the major attitudinal trends toward Tetun Dili, and to situate those beliefs within the larger societal language ideologies of East Timor. The aims of this paper are to contribute to the sociolinguistic literature in East Timor, as well as promote the idea that Tetun Dili itself is an important and legitimate subject of academic research.

Subject Marking on Galolen Verbs in Laleia, Manatuto Municipality

Marcelino Jose Correia , Dili Institute of Technology

Galolen is an Austronsian language commonly spoken in Manatuto municipality in Timor-Leste. It has been found that subject marking on verbs in Galolen mainly vowel initial verbs has prefix, like m-, n-, t- and r-. One of the examples is that the verb ‘ea’ means ‘to wait’. Look at the following table.

Vowel-initial verbs

1s ga'u


2s goo


3s ni


1pi gita ‘we’

1pe gami


2p mii


3p sia


 Ea ‘to wait’








The use of prefix m-, n-, t- and r- is determined by Galolen grammatical rules in terms of verbs subject agreement. However, there are some exceptions that Galolen consonant initial verbs and verbs borrowed from other languages, like Portuguese, Indonesian and Tetun do not ever take subject marking. In addition, some native verbs despite having vowel initial do not take subject marking and they can be called irregular verbs.

Further Analysis of the Nabilan Health and Life Experiences Study Findings

Xian Warner, Justino Sarmento Amaral, & Tamara Failor, The Asia Foundation

In 2015, The Asia Foundation conducted the Nabilan Baseline Study, a population-based survey in Timor-Leste on the prevalence and perpetration of violence against women and children, and risk factors for this violence. Previous analysis of the data suggests linkages between experiences of child abuse and intimate partner violence, and poor mental health amongst both men and women. Conflict-related trauma was found to be a risk factor in men’s use of violence. This suggests that violence prevention approaches in Timor-Leste should increase men’s access to mental health services and ensure psychological support for children who experience or witness violence. This paper presents additional analysis conducted by Foundation, to further explore associations between women’s experiences and men’s use of intimate partner violence and mental health conditions like trauma and depression. This new evidence can inform current and future approaches to preventing violence and improving mental health outcomes for the people of Timor-Leste.

Linking Health Systems with Social Change on Violence Against Women: A ‘Whole Health Facility’ Approach in Timor-Leste

Lidia Gomes, Angelina Fernandes, Isabelita Madeira (Guilhermina de Araujo, Livio da Conceicao Matos, Susan McDonald, Angela Taft, & Kayli Wild), La Trobe University

A global movement to address violence against women has begun. Timor-Leste has made significant progress with the Law Against Domestic Violence, training of police and community leaders, and NGOs providing services to victims. The health sector is a critical partner in a comprehensive response, but little is known about how to translate international guidelines in remote and under-resourced health systems. This research explores the barriers and enablers of midwives in responding to gender-based violence. In 2016, 36 midwives were interviewed across three municipalities of Timor-Leste. Participants identified the need for training on how to counsel and support women experiencing violence, however, those who had been trained often lacked adequate time and privacy required to ask about abuse. Managers and senior colleagues were key to creating an enabling environment. A 'whole health facility' approach is proposed which engages health staff and managers, and links health systems with wider social change process.

Women and Lali’an: The Challenges of Adopting an Improved Cook Stove in Timor-Leste

Therese Nguyen Thi P. Tam, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

This article examines the Timorese women´s decision making process of adoption improved cooked stoves under the examination of conceptual framework “Motivation, Affordability and Level of engagement” of Slaski and Thurber (2009). Despite of the obvious, evident-based socio-economic benefits of using an improved cook stove (ICS), majority of households are still persistent with their traditional cooking method. This article argues that the behavior change model of Slaski & Thurber (2009) can be used to explain the problem of behavior change in adopting an ICS in Timor-Leste, however it needs to be contextualized because some cultural values and practices associated with traditional Lali’an make it difficult for women to uptake the new improved technology of cooking.

Problema Alojamento Informal iha Zona Risko Dezastre no Area Protegido: “Sujestaun Politika ba Kontrolu Desenvolvimento iha Areadores Sidade Dili”

Filomeno Martins da Silva

Problema alojamento informal iha zona risko dezastre no area protegido iha areadores sidade Dili tama kategoria kritiko tebes. Konstrusaun uma hatur iha foho lolon, mota ninin, tasi ibun no iha Lagoa Tasi Tolu laran/ninin, sai preokupasaun entidades hotu iha areadores Sidade Dili tamba foo impakto ba degradasaun ambiente no perigo ba dezastre naturais. Situasaun ne’e, alein de fator kresemento populasaun ne’ebe as no imigrasaun ne’ebe bot, fator seluk ne’ebe sai kausa liu mak limitasaun terreno (liu-liu ba rai tetuk) iha areadores Dili. Demande ba rai, bot liu duke nia fornesemento atu hari uma. Kausa seluk maka falta de kontrolo hosi entidades relevantes (governo, autoridades lokais, no sosiedade sivil) no falta de regulamento entermus ba lei hodi regulariza konstrusaun alojamento informal sira ne’e. Objectivo hosi estudo ne’e hakarak atu hatene konaba problemas alojamento informal iha zona risko dezastre no area protegido, ne’ebe relasiona mos ho knar governo hodi regulariza actividades konstrusaun iha areadores Sidade Dili. Aprosimasaun iha peskiza ne’e utiliza metode purposive sampel, no analiza kualitatif deskretivo hodi deskreve kona ba problema, karakterizasaun habitantes sira nian, forma utlizasaun espaso no aspeito social ekonomia habitantes iha area risko ba dezastre no iha area protegido (Kristo Rei no Tasi Tolu). Proseso analisa ne’e usa mos konteudo analisa hodi reve fila fali lei ne’ebe iha ona hodi regulariza actividades konstrusaun infromal iha area ne’ebe dizignada ona hanesan area risko no area protegido. Sistematika estudo ne’e hahu ho levantamento terreno ba areas ne’ebe designada ona hanesan potu levantamento, depois kontinua ho reve lei no dokumentos relevantes hodi fortifika analiza iha parte kontrolo desenvolvomento hosi instituisaun relevantes governo nian no iha parte konklujaun e rekomendasaun estudo. Resultado estudo revela katak problema alojamento informal iha zona risko dezastre no area protegido hanesan problema real, ne’ebe perciso iha atensaun urgente hosi intidades tomak baseia ba rekomendasaun hosi estudo ida ne’e.

Produsaun Bee Moos husi Bee Fo’er Uza Métodu Filtrasaun

Felipe Xavier

Bee forma husi elementu kímika tolu hanesan Elementu hidrojeniu rua no Oksijeniu ida, prezensa bee importante liu-iha mundu tanba moris iha mundu depedénsia bá bee inklui iha Timor-Leste. No agora dadaun bee moos sai prekupasaun boot iha komunidade Timorense. Ho nune’e mak persija halo peskiza kona-ba kria bee moos halo filtrasaun utiliza media tolu hanesan rai henek, karbonu ativu, no zeolite ne’ebé kompara antes halo filtrasaun no depois filtrasaun. Husi rezultadu peskiza bee fo’er Cai-Coli bá barametru fízika no kímika di’ak ho nune’e halo tratamentu kontinuasaun tanba barametru mikrobiolojia sei problema. Redusaun bá barametru fikiza sira bá eletrika kondutividade 123µ/cm, TDS 70mg/L, salinidade 0.8‰, temperatura 27oC, turbidisaun 15.2NTU no pH 79. Barametru kímika sira molékula NH3 34,1mg/L, iaun nitriku 0.5mg/L, iaun nitrozu 0.0113mg/L, iaun Fe 0.37mg/L, iaun manganes 1.8mg/L, iaun flourida 0.27mg/L, iaun Cl laiha, no iaun sulfatu 11mg/L. Barametru mikrobiolojia redusaun bá total coliform mak 295mg/L no E. Coli mak aumenta 2.420mg/L liuhusi padraun bee moos ne’ebé estabele husi WHO ho nune’e, sujere katak rezultadu bee produzidu somente uza ba nesesidade seluk alende konsumu direita, bá futuru persija halo kontinuasaun tratamentu ho métodu desinfektasaun atu bele hamate mikrobiu sira. Hodi nune’e bele konsumu direita.

Dezenvolvimentu Projetu Infrastrutura Sira no Dezafiu ba Implementasaun Lisensamentu Ambientál iha Timor-Leste

Adilsonio da C. Junior, La’o Hamutuk. 12 MB PowerPoint ka 1 MB PDF aprezentasaun, ka artigu tomak (.2MB)

Timor-Leste nia konstrusaun infrastrutura fíziku sira iha mudansa ne’ebé signifikante hafoin hetan nia independénsia iha 2002. Mudansa ba implementasaun projetu infrastrutura sira ne’e lori risku oin-oin ba ita niameiu-ambiente, balada fuik sira no mós sosiedade afetadu sira nia moris ba tempu naruk. Iha nivel pratika, projetu na’in sira dala ruma viola tiha atu implementa enkuadramentu legal sira kona ba lisensamentu ambientál ne’ebé governu estabelese ona hodi regula kona ba atividade projetu no sai pratika di’ak ne’ebé implementador projetu infrastrutura sira tenke kumpre iha Timor-Leste. Estudu ida ne’e sei fornese dadus no informasaun importante ne’ebé instituisaun interesadu oin-oin bele utiliza ba dezeña sira programa no mós sai informasaun baze ba peskizadór sira seluk atu halo programa peskiza iha futuru oin mai.

A Língua Portuguesa Lulik: A Mitificação da Língua na Tradição Timorense

Karin Indart, CIEd, Uminho

A nação timorense pós-independente necessita de um novo conjunto de ideias e de valores mutuamente compatíveis os quais os seus membros possam aderir para justificar a sua pertença comum. Isso se dá a partir de uma reorganização de elementos antigos e novos que são mitificados. Argumentamos ser essa uma das funções da Língua Portuguesa e da religião em Timor-Leste. Autores como Menezes (2006), Thomaz (2008) e Gameiro (2012), descrevem as crenças tradicionais em Timor ligadas ao sobrenatural ou místico e o processo para tornar algo Lulik (um objeto, um costume ou técnica) e passar a fazer parte do acervo mitológico em Timor. Na presente análise de discurso de entrevistas realizadas com autoridades timorenses foram encontrados evidências da sacralização do português: a reverência à língua, a sua herança cultural ancestral, o tabu de contestá-lo e o fatalismo da sua manutenção.

Comunicação e Ensino de Português, Língua não-Materna: Que desafios para Moçambique e Timor-Leste?

António Tuzine, Universidade Católica de Moçambique

Tanto em Moçambique como em Timor-Leste, a questão da comunicação e ensino-aprendizagem do Português, língua não-materna, permanece em cima da mesa, preocupando não só a sociedade, em geral, mas sobretudo os professores e seus alunos que, frequentemente, têm de ensinar e aprender uma língua cuja norma pedagógica não é congruente com a usada pela maioria dos seus falantes. Embora com trajectória e realidade linguística dissemelhante, Moçambique e Timor-Leste, países unidos pelo passado e língua comuns, enfrentam hoje semelhantes desafios na busca dum ensino-aprendizagem do Português, mais efectivo e profícuo. Este artigo, de natureza bibliográfica, reflecte em torno das opções linguísticas em curso nos dois países, defendendo não só a busca de novos espaços para a ‘massificação’ do Português, em Timor, mas também a adopção e ‘legitimação’ das suas variedades acrolectais, em Moçambique.

O Perfil dos Estudantes do 1.º ano da Licenciatura em Ensino da Língua Portuguesa da UNTL

Clara Amorim, Benjamim Corte-Real, Benvinda Oliveira, Clara Amorim, e Susana Soares, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

O presente trabalho traça o perfil sociolinguístico dos estudantes do 1.º ano da licenciatura em Ensino da Língua Portuguesa da UNTL e identifica algumas das áreas críticas no domínio da competência comunicativa em português, tal como descrita no Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para as Línguas Estrangeiras. O perfil sociolinguístico resulta da análise dos dados recolhidos em fevereiro de 2017 através da aplicação de um questionário aos 241 alunos que ingressaram pela primeira no Departamento de Língua Portuguesa da UNTL. Na mesma ocasião, foi aplicado um teste de diagnóstico composto por sessenta questões de escolha múltipla de nível A1 e A2. As questões incidiam sobre competências gramaticais, sociolinguísticas e pragmáticas e a seleção dos conteúdos a testar foi feita a partir dos programas de Ensino de Português no Estrangeiro do Camões, I. P. A análise dos resultados permite mapear algumas áreas críticas no âmbito das competências linguística, sociolinguística e pragmática em língua portuguesa dos alunos que concluíram o ensino secundário em Timor-Leste.

Provedoria for Human Rights and Justice (PDHJ) in Timor Leste: Negotiating Activism

Khoo Ying Hooi, University of Malaya

National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) are often criticized of its limitations in human rights protection. One of the main reasons is the fact where the NHRIs are established by the state. It is challenging to have any states to create institutions that are independent enough and with adequate mandate to meaningful redress on human rights violations. Established in 2004, just two years right after Timor Leste achieved its independence in 2002, the Provedoria for Human Rights and Justice (PDHJ) in Timor Leste is set up as an ombudsman institution. The PDHJ is particularly important, as it does not only provide a channel for local human rights activism; it is also an actor that responsible to respond to human rights claims. This paper examines the potential of the PDHJ in creating incentives for human rights activism, and its limitations to human rights protection in Timor Leste.

Shared Sovereignty in Timor-Leste: A Case from 1999 toward 2006

Fernando Ximenes, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Shared sovereignty is an emerging phenomena, where it is the consequences from the hybrid global economic integration, increasing number of regional and global agenda as well as rapid advances of technology. Shared sovereignty refers to the process in which state couldn’t assume it’s total control on it’s jurisdiction and public affairs where the power will be shared and transfer to another actors such as state or international institution. The shared sovereignty itself come from many forms, some are foreign military deployment in case of some bloody war or humanitarian crises for instance in UN Mission in Somalia and Timor-Leste, self-defense acts such as US lead invasion to Afghanistan-Iraq, and extra-judicial in Cambodia’s Pol Pot case. At the other, Timor-Leste, a newest democratic sovereignty state, where since it’s inception, it was an embryonic for both great power leading humanitarian intervention and UN backed constitutional and state-building process during the two important momentum of Timor-Leste’s journey to fully independences in 2002 until the abrupt of civil crises in 2006. Was the shared has erode its sovereignty? What was the implications since there? This study aim to explore the complex situation presented in particular case of shared sovereignty in Timor-Leste. Learn from past and ongoing sharing sovereignty experiences and process around the globe by presenting a systemic analysis to the uncover history from Australia leading military intervention from 1999 and 2006, UN backed constitutionalism building in Timor Leste and the preeminent role during the civil crises in 2006. The studies aim to provide an understanding on Timor-Leste experience on the field of transfer sovereignty process and seeking it’s influences in Timor-Leste political dynamic post-INTERFET, UNTAET and post-crises in 2006.

The Spiritual Landscape in Timor-Leste: Ways Forward for Human Security Research

Bronwyn Winch, RMIT University

Human security has been a reoccurring theme in security and development discourse in Timor-Leste since independence. Yet globally, it continues to be critiqued for misguided assumptions regarding universal applicability, contextual relevance across different sites and enduring state-centricity. Drawing on ethnographically-framed fieldwork conducted in Dili and Viqueque, this paper argues that if the Human Security paradigm is to be truly ‘people-centred’ with meaningful impact, there must be serious engagement with the everyday-lived-realities of the communities that policy and programmatic objectives are targeted toward. In Timor-Leste, this means acknowledging the centrality of the spiritual landscape in peoples’ lives, and sustaining relationships of negotiation and exchange between the living, dead and natural environment.

Conserving Mangroves, Strengthening Coastal Communities and Building Shoreline Resilience to Climate Change in Timor-Leste

Sinkinesh Beyene, Karen Edyvane, C. Providas, G. da Costa, & R. Pati Tpoi, Sustainable Development Unit, United Nations Development Program; Center for Climate Change and Biodiversity, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Mangroves in Timor-Leste provide a wide range of critical ecosystem goods and services (eg. food, fuel, timber, income), including critical coastal protection to coastal communities highly vulnerable to climate change. However, mangrove forests have declined dramatically in Timor-Leste (~80% since 1940), facing anthropogenic threats (climate and non-climate), with potential major impacts on food security and human well-being. In this paper, we outline a 4-year UNDP/GEF (US$7M) program to conserve and restore mangroves and build shoreline resilience in Timor-Leste. The program adopts an integrated biophysical-livelihood approach to conserving and strengthening mangrove and shoreline resilience to climate change, and focuses on 3 main thematic areas of activity: (i) strengthening policy frameworks, institutional and technical capacity for coastal wetland management, climate risk assessments, CCA and ICM, (ii) community-based ecological mangrove restoration (CBEMR) and mangrove-based livelihoods (to incentivize mangrove rehabilitation and protection); (iii) and integrated approaches to protection of coastal populations and productive lands (watershed re-afforestation, groundwater recharge, financial instruments). We outline the program’s governance, key activities, and also, current progress and challenges.

Governance Challenges in Integrated Coastal Management and Coastal Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from Mangrove Loss and Shoreline Protection in Timor Leste

Karen Edyvane, Brianna Hunt-Ficcadenti, Silva Larson, Jose Lucas Do Carmo Da Silva, & Sinkinesh Beyene, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e; James Cook University; UN Development Program

Few studies have explored the complex relationships between governance, integrated coastal management (ICM) and coastal climate change adaptation (CCCA) particularly in highly vulnerable, resource-poor, least developed countries (LDCs). Focussing on the post-conflict, fragile nation of Timor Leste, this paper examines efforts to implement CCCA and ICM, against a background of nation-building, poverty, food insecurity and weak institutional capacity. Using mangrove loss/degradation and shoreline protection as a case study, the paper reviews coastal climate (and non-climate) impacts and the underlying causes of biophysical and socio-economic coastal vulnerabilities. And also examines current coastal governance and relevant ICM and CCCA efforts - including an analysis of major gaps and barriers, and identification of key strategic priorities/actions. Our analysis highlights the rapid pace of unregulated, coastal development (particularly major infrastructure), highly vulnerable coastal ecosystems and human populations, a critical lack of vertical and horizontal coastal governance, a large, diverse and uncoordinated donor presence, limited data availability and accessibility, and the urgent need for greater integration of ICM, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation programs. Previous failed mangrove restoration efforts are also assessed. Finally, we provide relevant and applicable lessons from other LDCs to assist in building shoreline and community resilience - particularly, local land-use solutions and integrated livelihood development strategies that incentivize mangrove reafforestation and strengthen CCCA and ICM in Timor Leste.

Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability Assessment for Hera and Pantai Kelapa Area

Adão Soares Barbosa, Acacio Cardoso Amaral, Marçal Gusmão, Vicente de Paul Correia, Eduardo Aniceto Serrão, Acacio Guterres, Adelino P. do Rego, Jorge M. Freitas da Silva, Ligia Purificação, & Shanti Karanjit, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Timor-­‐Leste has been experiencing climate change for the last few decades. Annual temperature in the country has increased about 0.016°C per year. It is predicted that by 2030 the temperature will increase up to 0.3-­‐1.2 °C and by 2070 it will increase between 0.8-­‐3.6 °C. It is also recorded that monthly rainfall for December, January and February has been increased in Timor-­‐Leste in the last 10 years compared to the decades before. Due to this climate change it causes some serious hazards to community and their livelihoods. To explore and understand the impact of climate change on people’s lives and livelihoods, an assessment was done in the area of Hera and Pantai Kelapa, Dili Timor Leste. This vulnerability assessment was undertaken in Hera village with aim to assess the level of climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation options for people in that village with particular focus on flood, drought, sedimentation and sea level rise. The study in Pantai Kelapa beach was to assess sea level rise that makes some infrastructure to be more vulnerability to the sea level rise. The finding of this study was that climate change has been happening in Hera and Pantai Kelapa, including rainfall change over the last 2 decades; Climate induced hazards such as floods, sedimentation, droughts and sea level rise have significantly affected infrastructure as well as ,lives, and livelihoods of people in Hera village; The highest risk of climate induced disasters for Hera village are floods, sedimentation and drought while landslides, soil erosion and wind hazards are having low impacts for this village; pantai Kelapa has a high risk of sea level rise which has affected road and some land have been sank into the sea water.

Dezafiu ba Indústria Ki'ik Prosesamentu Produtu Agríkola iha Timor-Leste

Maxi Tahu, La’o Hamutuk.   2 MB PowerPoint ka 0.5 MB PDF

Peskiza kona-ba dezafiu no oportunidade indústria kiik prosesamentu produtu agríkola ne'e buka atu komprende fatór tékniku no polítika sira ne'ebé sai dezafiu ba kreximentu indústria kiik prosesamentu produtu agríkola iha Timor-Leste. Peskiza ne'e mós halibur informasaun kona-bá poténsia indústria sira ne'e nian no halo analiza kona ba fatór sira ne'ebé sai obstákulu ba poténsia sira ne'e. Rezultadu husi peskiza ne'e sei oferese dadus nesesáriu ba Governu no Parlamentu Nasionál atu kria polítika públiku ne'ebé akomoda kreximentu setór indústria kiik iha rai-laran. Peskiza ne'e mós bele sai referénsia ba ajénsia dezenvolvimentu sira seluk bainhira dezeña no implementa sira nia programa dezenvolvimentu sira. Peskiza ne'e uza metodolojia kualitativa ho kombinasaun entrevista individual no diskusaun grupu, hodi rona esperiénsia no ideas sira husi parte sira ne'ebé durante ne'e diretamente halo prosesamentu ba produtu agríkola no parte sira ne'ebé involve indiretamente liu husi sira nia apoiu ba produtór sira. Respondente sira ba peskiza ne'e mak produtór kiik sira ne'ebé halo produsaun nudár grupu no mós kompañia privadu sira ne'ebé halo prosesamentu ba produtu agrikultura nian. Peskiza ne'e kobre munisipiu Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro, Dili no Same.

Koto Nani Afrika Hetan Adaptasaun Diak iha Timor-Leste

Armindo Moises, Luis Pereira, Antonio do Rego, Abril de Fátima, Amandio da Costa Ximenes, Tobias Moniz Vicente, Luis Fernandes, Apolinario Ximenes, no Maria Martins, Ministério da Agrikultura no Pescas; Seeds of Life

Koto nani (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ne’ebé baibain ema kuda hodi fa’an no sai hanesan ai-han importante ida, kuda durante tempu naruk nia laran ona iha Timor-Leste. Esforsu Ministério da Agricultura e Pescas (MAP) liu husi Direcção Peskiza, mak oinsa atu hetan variedade ida ne’ebe ho produsaun aas no kualidade diak. Iha tinan 2009 MAP ho apoiu husi programa Seeds of Life (SoL) halo peskiza adaptasaun ba koto nani variedade foun oin 16 ne’ebé mai husi Rwanda/Áfrika no koko to’o tinan 2015. Teste adaptivu ne’e hala’o iha Municipio Ainaro, Aileu, Manufahi, Liquica, Baucau no Viqueque. Entre variedade foun ne’ebé halo teste, iha balu hatudu rezultadu produsaun konsisténsia aas bainhira kuda iha diferensa ambiente nomos iha tinan barak nia laran. Rezultadu médiu produsaun husi tinan 2009-2015 hatudu katak variedade RWV 1348 ho nia produsaun 1.7 (t/ha) no variedade Mwirasi ho nia produsaun 1.4 (t/ha). Rezultadu husi variedade foun oin rua refere bo’ot liu kompara ho variedade lokál ida ne’ebé nia médiu produsaun 1.1 (t/ha) hanesan aas liu husi variedade lokál oin tolu (3) ne’ebe koko. Ho ida ne’e, peskizador rekomenda ba MAP hodi lansa sai hanesan variedade foun iha tinan 2016 ho naran Ululefa-RW (RWV 1348) no Fleixa-RW (Mwirasi). Variedade sira ne’e agora iha faze multiplikasaun ba fini sertifikadu.

Testu Adabtivo Konservsaun Agrikultura hodi Hasa’e Produsaun, Hamate Duut, Conserva Rai, be’e no Hamenus Kustu

Marcos Correia Vidal ho Joao Bosco Belo, Minesterio da Agricultura e Pescas

Konservasaun Agrikultura (KA) hanesan aktividade agrikultura ida nebe organik no subtentavel hodi konserva ambiente ba tempu naruk nomos kria manegementu nebe diak kona ba rai, be’e no finansial atu nune’e bele redus risku desastre agrikultura iha tempu naruk. Sistema ne’e hanesan inovasaun foun ida ba Agrikultores Timor Leste foin hahu iha tinan 2013 to’o agora hanesan fase esprementasaun ho Toos nain sira. Konservasaun Agrikultura mos sai hanesan alternativo seluk ida hodi hasae produsaun agricula liu husi dalan la fila rai no uja material organik hanesan aihoris Legum (fore-fore) sai hanesan adubus no mulsa ba rai ho aumenta rai nia bokor, kaer be’e hadia struktura no tekstura rai hodi hasae productividade Agrikula nebe ho kustu nebe menus. Sistema ne’e hahu implementa kleur ona iha Nasaun seluk hanesan Nasaun Estado Unidus, Cina, Autralia no Nasaun Asiaticu seluk nebe iha benivisio diak ba rai, be’e, ambienti, saude ema nian no produsaun agrikultores ho rajaun ida ne’e bele implementa iha Timor Lorosa’e. Implementasaun actividade liu husi testu peskiza iha Centro peskiza nebe halo komparasaun lafila rai, lasunu, nahe mulca no kuda fore-fore hanesan fore koto lehe, kota surik, koto moruk, duhaen, foremasin nebe halo kompara sistema fila rai uja traktor, sunu, lanahe mulca no lakuda fore iha toos laran. Testu ne’e lakoko deit iha centro peskiza maibe kuntinua koko hamutuk ho toos nain sira iha sira nia toos, nebe kobre zona Agroekologi nebe iha, hodi hare oinsa conservasaun agrikultura bele adapta ba ita nia sistema agricultores, rai, be’e du’ut no iklima. Halo toos la fila rai, la sunu rai, kuda fore oin-oin tuir kondisaun kada fatin no utilija material organic nebe iha toos laran hetan resultadu nebe significante depois de tinan tolu esprementasaun iha toos. Parte rai tetuk utilija kuda lehe, koto surik, duhaen, fore masin ho nia resultadu ba produsaun batar 2-3 ton per ha no konsege redus kustu servisu $500 to’o $50 hahu husi perparasaun rai to koileta, maibe fore-fore sira nebe iha karakteristik lahanesan tanba balu moris ladiak iha rai malirin, antaun persija utilija fore nebe moris taka rai diak iha rai malirin. Rekomenda ho ida ne’e persija kuntinua halo peskiza nafatin antes fo’o rekomendasaun.

Pengaruh Jarak Tanam dan Biomas Kacang-Kacangan Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Jagung

Augusto Gouveia Lopes dan Claudino Ninas Nabais, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jarak tanam dan biomas kacang-kacangan terhadap produksi jagung (Zea mays, L.). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Natarbora, Manatuto, Timor-Leste pada tanggal 16 November, 2015 sampai 28 Maret, 2016 pada ketinggian 36m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan kombinasi perlakuan 3 x 3 faktor yang diulang tiga kali dalam blok. Faktor yang digunakan adalah jarak tanam (JT) dengan tiga level yaitu 70cm x 25cm, 70cm x 40cm dan 70cm x 50cm sedangkan faktor lainnya adalah biomas kacang-kacangan (BK) yaitu kacang karak benguk (Muccuna pruriens) dan kacang tunggak (Vigna unguiculata subsp). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa terjadi interaksi antara kedua faktor. Kombinasai perlakuan JT3 (70cm x 50cm) dengan BK1 (kacang karak benguk) menunjukan hasil berat kering biji 6,60t ha-1 dibandingkan produksi terendah yaitu 4.43t ha-1 pada kombinasi perlakuan JT2 (70cm x 40cm) dengan BK2 (kacang tunggak). Dengan demikian biomas kacang karak benguk dengan jarak tanam 70cm x 50cm memberikan hasil tertinggi.

Pengaruh Komunikasi dan Pengambilan Keputusan Terhadap Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan

Leonardo Fernandes, Timor Geoscience and Development Society

Perusahaan Timor Block Building Industry Co. Ltd adalah perusahaan swasta yang berfungsi dan bergerak di bidang produksi seperti produk batako, tiang listrik dan lain sebagainya. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh komunikasi terhadap produktivitas kerja karyawan guna menfasilita komunikasi antar bawahan dan atasan sehingga tidak terjadi kekeliruan dalam bekerja serta melalui pengambilan keputusan yang tepat bagi karyawan dalam perusahaan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas kerja bagikaryawan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Perusahaan Timor Block Building Industry Co. Ltd Dili Timor-Leste. Dari hasil penelitian dengan menggunakkan program SPSS versi 12,0 menunjukkan persamaan regresi untuk penelitian adalah:
 Ŷ = -23.342+0.654X1+0.036X2.
Dari persamaan regresi berganda diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa regresi untuk nilai konstanta sebesar (-23.342) dipengaruhi oleh nilai variable komunikasi (X1) seperti komunkasi dalam perusahaan pengunaan bahasa harian, dan pengambilan keputusan (X2) seperti dalam pengambilan keputusan yang diambil oleh manajer dalam mengambil suatu keputusan harus sesuai dengan kondisi karyawan yang ada. Dan tidak ada perubahan dan variable produktivitas kerja karyawan mengalami perubahan, dimana b2 = (0.036) adalah koefisien regresi variable komunikasi (X1) dengan produktivitas kerja karyawan (Y), dimana X2 mengalami kenaikan sebesar (0.036) terhadap variable produktivitas kerja karyawan (Y) karena dipengaruhioleh faktor komunikasi yang efektif dengan demikian beranggapan bahwa variable X1 konstanta Koefisien determinasi (R2) dari penelitian menunjukkan 0.939 artinya kontribusi atau sumbangan pengaruh komunikasi (X1) seperti dalam ucapan bahasa yang bisa dimegerti oleh setiap karyawan ada sehingga pengambilan keputusan (X2) yang diberikan variable produktivitas karyawan (Y) sebesar 0.939 atau 93.9%. Sedangkan sisanya sebesar 0.061 atau 0.61% yang dipengaruhi oleh variable lain seperti pekerjaan karyawan maupun sumber daya manusia. Sedangkan dari hasil pengujian secara simultan (Uji F) menunjukkan bahwa koefisien korelasi berganda antara komunikasi dan pengambilan keputusan terhadap produktivitas kerja karyawan adalah signifikan dengan persamaan regresinya Ŷ = - 23.342+0.654X1+0.036X

Experiences in Community-Based Approaches to Respond to and Prevent Violence against Women and Children

Cristina Sarmento, Mario de Jesus Ximenes, Xian Warner, & Kathryn Robertson, The Asia Foundation

Most women who experience violence do not seek help from formal services such as the Police or NGOs. This is a reality globally. Shame, victim-blaming, normalization of violence, concerns about negative impacts on family and community relations and lack of understanding of and access to helping services pose challenges to women seeking help. The Nabilan program, together with local partners, is engaging in a community mobilization approach to address attitudes and beliefs which contribute to violence against women and children as well as to strengthen help available to victims in their community. An iterative approach is being used, developing programming based on discussions and needs at community level, in collaboration with people who want to make change happen. We are drawing upon international examples such as SASA! and also using integrated research and reflection to develop contextualized approaches, which are essential to a process of social change.

Child Abuse and Protection Challenges in Timor Leste

Anna Yang, The Asia Foundation

In 2015, The Asia Foundation conducted the Nabilan Baseline Study, a population-based survey in Timor-Leste on the prevalence and perpetration of violence against women and children. The study found alarmingly high rates of child abuse in Timor-Leste. However, criminal cases of physical abuse and neglect of children brought before the courts are rare. In 2016, the Judicial System Monitoring Programme monitored only two cases of child mistreatment in the courts. Suspected cases of serious child abuse in the home by a caregiver, reported by NGO service providers, are often neglected by government authorities because of a perceived lack of intervention powers. This paper examines specific case studies which highlight the legislative gaps, poor understanding of basic child protection standards, and efforts taken by NGOs to take action in the absence of a coordinated government response. These case studies illustrate the child protection challenges in Timor-Leste, and areas for urgent action.

Security from Below: The Socio-Cultural Context of Responding to Violence Against Women in Timor-Leste

Kayli Wild, Guilhermina de Araujo, Livio da Conceicao Matos (Lidia Gomes, Angelina Fernandes, Isabilita Madeira, Susan McDonald, & Angela Taft), La Trobe University

International advocacy and evidence have been critical for getting gender-based violence onto the health agenda. These frameworks, however, tend to be underpinned by Western and biomedical principles of autonomous decision-making and availability of referral services. This research seeks to understand the socio-cultural context of providing care to victims of violence in Timor-Leste. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 midwives and community leaders in three municipalities of Timor-Leste. The findings reveal the strategies midwives have for encouraging women to open up, the wide range of advice they provide, and how they help women in the absence of formal services. The role of families and community leaders emerged as central in the response to violence against women. There is a need for further dialogue on 'security from below' and how health providers can engage with families and communities while foregrounding the needs and rights of women and children experiencing violence.

Forma Rezisténsia Kotidiana no Ninia Relasaun ho Movimentu Independénsia

Nuno Rodriguez Tchailoro

Efeitu naturál husi okupasaun Indonézia mak mosu movimentu polítiku no rezisténsia kotidiana atu luta kontra. Atu luta hasoru okupasaun, individu sira iha forma rezisténsia oioin. To’o ohin loron seidauk iha estudu kona-ba rezisténsia kotidiana durante okupasaun. Estudu barak ba rezisténsia ninian konsentra ba movimentu polítiku hasoru okupasaun Indonézia. Artigu ne’e sei konsentra ba forma rezisténsia kotidiana ne’ebé eziste iha zona okupadas no ninia relasaun ho movimentu .

Identifikasaun Faktores Sira ne’ebe Substansia Potensia Eko-Turismu Komunitariu iha Zona KADABUNAK

Antero Benedito da Silva, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Turismu sai fontes ida ne’ebe, potensial, ba diversidade ekonomia. Besik sidade semi-urbana Dili, unika fatin turistiku ne’ebe atrai komunidade lokal makaas-liu mak zona area branca, desde tempu kolonial nian. Fatin ida ne’e mos hetan ameasa seriu husi sedimentasaun, trafiku, no numeru visitante ne’ebe aumenta hahu kria polusaun lian, no polusaun anin iha zona ne’eba, ne’ebe naturalmente reduz interese visitante sira nian. Peskiza ida ne’e sei uza metodu peskiza de assaun (action research), ho partisipasaun komunidade liu-husi aproximasaun edukativu sira, durante periodu tinan tolu mai oin, hodi promove turismu ekolojia iha zona KADABUNAK, iha komunidade Lolein-Mombai, iha area Darlau nian, hodi sai turismu alternativu. Resultadu peskiza deskreve konaba potensia historia oral, demografika, potensia ekolojika, potensia kultural, potensia diversidade ekolojika no potensia rekursu umanu no sira nian matenek lokal, sai faktor sira ne’ebe posibilita promosaun eko-turismu komunitariu, nu’udar, projetu no fatin turismu alternativu, Rai Inin besik sidade semi-urbana Dili.

Ita Luta Para atu Matenek, Atu Kaer Nasaun- Abut Ba Idéias Direitus Umanus iha Timor-Leste

Marisa Ramos Gonçalves, Universidade de Coimbra

Timor-Leste nia luta ba direitu sosiál no politiku iha passadu hari’i memória nebé sai influensia ba idéia direitu no justisa iha tempu aktuál. Konta istória entre jerasaun konabá memória no esperiensia koloniál, nomós konabá movimentu ukun rasik-an, kontribui hodi hamosu idéia direitu umanu lókal sira. Koñesimentu lókal sira-ne’e moris husi diálogu ho idéia globalizadu direitu no justisa nian, maibé Timoroan sira-nia persepsaun katak ajensia no inisiativa lokál nebé hola parte iha kontestu istóriku no sosiál Timor-Leste nian mak abut ba direitu sira. Tanba ne’e, koñesimentu lókal sira konabá direitu inklui vizaun ida nébé ke iha ligasaun ho luta sosiál no akontesimentu iha mundu maibé mós reflexivu konabá ema Timor sira-nia knaar iha mundu. Iha vizaun lokál ida-ne’e ema-hotu nia direitu ba edukasaun no ukun rasik-an iha sentidu importansia nebé ke a’as liu. Aprezentasaun ida-ne’e konvite atu debate rezultado husi estudo doutoramentu konabá jenealojia (abut) ba idéia direitu no justisa iha kada jerasaun Timoroan sira, nomós konabá diálogu entre diskurso globalizadu direitu umanu sira no koñesimentu lokál direitu no justisa nian.

Contribuições para Uma História Política da Defensoria Pública de Timor-Leste

Alessandra Quines Cruz , Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

O presente trabalho visa a reunir e organizar em uma sequência histórico-política, as memórias, discursos e opiniões em torno da idealização, criação e organização da instituição defensoria pública de Timor-Leste. Para tanto, examinamos os documentos produzidos pelas cooperações internacionais durante os trabalhos executados na instituição, as entrevistas ofertadas pelos/as defensores/as públicos/as, servidores/as da instituição e algumas personalidades políticas que testemunharam a sua criação, e ainda, a legislação que regula a defensoria pública. Com essa análise e por meio da pesquisa que a ela precede, pretendemos contribuir para o início de uma reflexão sobre a história dessa instituição; sobre seu posicionamento na legislação timorense, incluindo funções institucionais, objetivos e essencialidade no sistema de justiça, e ainda, sobre o modelo de assistência jurídica adotado em Timor-Leste, em análise comparativa com o caso brasileiro, sob a luz do direito internacional dos direitos humanos.

Saberes para Cristianização da Colônia do Timor Português (1949-1973)

Alexandre Jorge de Medeiros Fernandes

O artigo descreve saberes mobilizados pela Igreja Católica para a missionação do Timor Português pós-segunda guerra (1949-1975). A partir da análise de um instrumento técnico – o Boletim Eclesiástico da Diocese de Dili – sugere-se que as práticas de divulgação de diversos textos teológicos advindos da Santa Sé eram essenciais para a coordenação dos modos de atuar juntos às diferentes dimensões da missão religiosa e para a manutenção da hierarquia eclesiástica da Igreja Católica. Apresenta-se os diferentes gêneros textuais e saberes divulgados para esses escopos, como instruções jurídicas, reflexões teológicas, relatos históricos, contos, lendas e etnografias. A produção local de saberes estava orientada com certas diretrizes centrais da Igreja Católica, atualizando às diferentes contigências das missões religiosas que atuavam naquela colônia. O objetivo do artigo é destacar que a divulgação de tais saberes tinha uma dupla face: além de permitir um conhecimento sobre os povos missionados para convertê-los, era uma forma de harmonizar as práticas pastorais das diferentes agências religiosas hierarquicamente inferiores entre si e com as novas diretrizes da Igreja, mantendo uma unidade de.

How Do We Expect Communities to Change When We Don’t Support Development Workers with Change?

Lucy Jeunesse Barton & Celeste Francisca Pinto, Similie Timor LDA

International development assistance has traditionally been focused on driving community engagement for behavioural change. However, development organisations also experience internal organisational changes which when not managed well, affects development workers’ ability to effectively transform donor funding into positive community outcomes. Corporate change management tools were used to manage organisational change in a development context. The Prosci ADKAR change management methodology was applied to implement a new IT system in a Timorese government department. Employees were engaged regularly to help them develop awareness, desire, and knowledge of the change before training. It was found that regular open communication increased employee engagement in the training and overall project. The approach allowed staff to begin leading the change, rather than having it done to them. This has positive implications for the long-term adoption of the system, and demonstrates an innovative approach to international development.

Here to Help: Exploring the Motivations of International Development Workers in Timor-Leste

Sam Carroll-Bell, RMIT University

Development is a multifaceted human activity involving a wide variety of actors and interests. Underlying its practice is an equally complex collection of individual attitudes and impulses. Reflecting upon the broader shifts that have occurred within the so called *Aidland *literature since the early 2000s, and drawing on primary research data, this paper examines the personal motivations of International Development Workers operating in a particular locale – the post-conflict state of Timor-Leste. In the 15 years since the restoration of independence, Timor-Leste has been home, albeit temporarily, to thousands of international development workers, project officers, capacity builders and volunteers. Despite this prolonged period of engagement and the prominence of the roles held, our understanding of these individuals, including why they choose to work in Timor-Leste, remains very limited. This paper observes that workers frequently hold multiple motivations including: social justice, religious callings and self-exploration. In so doing it contributes new understanding about the *malae* that are ‘here to help’.

Labour Productivity and Economic Development in Timor-Leste

Brett Inder & Katy Cornwell, Monash University

This paper explores the foundations for economic development in Timor-Leste, focusing on emergence of a strong and diverse private sector. It identifies that the key constraint to development of the private sector is labour productivity. The paper then explores strategies for increasing labour productivity. This includes looking at policies and other interventions that might improve incentives or create disincentives to increased productivity. We look at indirect channels of improving labour productivity – improving institutions and infrastructure. In the more direct channel of improving performance of workers, we will explore a taxonomy of types of employment, and identify key areas of focus for training and development, as well as models for how learning takes place in the work environment.

Preliminary Case Study of Flood Susceptibility Modeling and Hazard Assessment using Qualitative Map Combination Method in ArcGIS Software of Dili City Area

Oktoviano Viegas Tilman de Jesus, Instituto do Petroleo e Geologia

The Dili city, where the urbanized areas located is significantly prone to urban Flood occurrences. Flooding is commonly causing significant damages to the areas within the country, in view of the fact, during the rainy season the population of Dili City are continually suffers to the flood occurrences, it has destroyed the basic infrastructures, and affected to the people’s lives and casualties. The aims of this study to generate, modeling and mapping the flood susceptibility zone in the area, it is also intends to identify, evaluate, asses the flood hazard occurrences and recommend the probable solutions or mitigation in minimizing the flood occurrences. The method used in generating the Flood Susceptibility Map (FSM) modeling is the Qualitative Map Combination using the Numerical Ranking Analysis in ArcGIS 10.1 software, there are several parameters were combined and analyzed regarding on their triggering factor of importance and influence to the flood. The result of this study can be used by the policy makers, decision makers, planners and other parties to plan and implement an effective system of the flood management within the country, as a basis for future master plan and safe development, and therefore to develop necessary mitigating measures and preparedness plans.

The Structural Geology of the Cribas Area and its Implications for Petroleum Potential Issues

Valente Ferreira, Timor Geoscience and Development Society

Structurally, there are two deformation phases well identified in the Cribas area, namely D1 and D2 (1st and 2nd deformation). The D1 is induced the generalized folding of the Cribas anticline and some possible petroleum traps below unconsolidated sediment in the southern coast of Timor island. The Cribas anticline is as an open fold with an E-W sub-horizontal axis and limbs dipping 25o between north and south. The most important structures of D2 are the major N-S sinistral strike- slip faults and coeval minor folds. The main N-S faults of D2 are well developed in the Sumasse River, west of Cribas area and also in the Hacraun river, such as N Hacraun fault and S Hacraun fault. The structural environments show that the strike-slip faults are predominates in the area and there is a diversity of D2 accommodation structures which emphasized a south vergence of E- W thrust that affecting the core of the Cribas anticline. Then in Tuqueti river, east of Cribas area is one induced the thrusting of the Aituto formation overlies the Cribas formation. These structures pressed some oil seeps in the eastern side of the Tuqueti river and western side of Sumasse river. Based on geochemical analyses of collected rock samples from the Cribas formation indicated that shales rocks are contained 0.71% of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), which means that this rock will probably be a source rock for petroleum and some shales rocks of the Atahoc and Aituto Formations remain that TOC values are below 0.71%.

Performance Enhancement of Waste-Oil Cookstoves

Domingos de Sousa Freitas & Chris Mares, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

The demand of traditional biomass for cooking in Timor-Leste is steadily increasing. The dependence of the community on traditional biomass continues to grow. Specially the Ministry of Education runs program of school feeding, provides meals for students in all elementary and junior schools and this requires a huge amount of traditional biomass as well as other social activities. However, the cutting of tress to provide the biomass obviously has a great impact on the environment. Deforestation, soil erosion and natural disaster vulnerability due to climate variability, poor water quality, and indoor air pollution, are all a result. The objective of the research is to improve the efficiency of waste-oil cookstoves so as lessen the demand for traditional biomass. The study compared four specific parameters of air pressure versus waste-oil flow rate using various valve controls to examine the most effective temperatures and times for cooking various foods. The research method is based on an experimental set-up. The valve was tested at 16°, 18°, 20° and fully opened. Thus a 20° opening was the most time efficient. Moreover, the highest air pressure, combined with the waste-oil flow results in the most efficient cooking.

Nivel Adopsaun Agrikultór ba Teknolojía Agríkola Integradu Kultivasaun Hare Natar

Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai, Abril Fatima Lemos Soares, Octaviana Ferreira Agostinho, Maria Fernandes, Ministerio de Agricultura e Pescas; Direção Naçional de Pesquisas, Estatistica e Informação Geografica; Departamento Inovação Teknologia e Pós Colheita

Sistema kultivasaun ho kustume integradu no maneja ne’e be mak diak hasae produsaun hare iha rai laran atu bele asequra demanda ai-han husi rai laran ba populasaun Timor Leste mak aumenta kada tinan. Objetivu husi peskiza ida ne’e atu hatene nivel adoptasaun no impaktu karakteristika sosiu ekonomiku agrikultòr ba utilizasaun teknolojía agríkola integradu kultivasaun hare natar. Metodolojia mak uza simple random sampling, katak sampel foti ho maneira random ho kuantidade 30 pessoas kada munisipiu no total 90 pessoas, dadus mak rekolla ona analiza ho Likert Scale ho correlation Coefficients. Tabulasaun dadus uza software excel spread sheet data hodi halo analiza no rezultadu hatudu nivel adopsaun alto ho total 65 pesoas (72%), sampel ne’ebe hetan nivel médiu ba adopsaun ho total 25 pesoas (28%), sampel ne’ebe hetan nivel baziku ba adopsaun ho total zero (0) pesoas (0%). Rezultadu peskiza hatudu katak iha relasaun entre esperiensia halo natar ho nivel adopsaun integradu kultivasaun hare natar hatudu valor ho grau relasaun < 0.2 signifika laiha relasaun entre variabel rua. Variabel ne’ebe inklui iha laran mak variabel edukasaun formal. Kuandu valor ho grau entre 0.2 to’o 0.4 signifika relasaun entre variabel rua iha maibe fraku, variabel ne’e mak esperiensia serbisu natar ho total rendimentu. Valor ho relasaun grau < 0.4 to’o 0.7 signifika relasaun entre variabel rua médiu, variabel ne’e mak idade. Valor ho grau relasaun ˃ 0.7 signifika relasaun entre variabel rua forte no variabel ne’e mak luan área.

Fini Íbridu Aseitavel iha Toos Nain Timor-Leste Nia Let?

Claudino Nabias ho Robert L. Williams, Ministerio da Agricultura e Pescas; University of Western Australia, AI-Com (Agricultural Innovations for Communities)

Toos nain hortikultura iha Timor-Leste uza ona fini íbridu desde rai neé ukun an. Maski nuneé, ONG no sosiedade sivil barak mak halo kampanha kontra utilizasaun fini íbridu sira. Artigu ida neé uza estudu kazu tolu hodi investiga gastus no benefisiu hosi utilizasaun fini íbridu. Maski iha espesies tolu (tomate ho batar) ninia presu fini íbridu karun maibe, ninia lukru boot ba toos nain sira kompara ho presu fini. Iha kazu batar, toos nain sira sei hetan lukru mínimu $5/loron bainhira uza fini íbridu, maski tenke sosa fila-fila fini íbridu husi ema nebe produs hodi kuda fila fali iha tinan tuir mai. Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai, Octaviana Ferreira Agostinho, Maria Fernandes, Libanio Paulo da Cruz de Jesus, Abril Fatima Lemos Soares, Antonio dos Santos, Lucio Henrique, Manuel Mali Mau Watu ano, ho Augusto Rangel, Ministerio de Agricultura e Pescas; Direção Naçional de Pesquisas, Estatistica e Informação Geografica; Departamento Inovação Teknologia e Pós Colheita; Grupu Agricultór .Aprende Hamutuk ho Grupu Agrikultor Iha Area pos Kolleita Prosesamentu Kualidade Hare Pós kolleita hanesan parte importante hodi mantein kualidade no kuantidade husi produtu agríkola mak agrikultòr sira produs, maibe dala barak prosesu pós kolleita hare ladun hetan atensaun maximu hodi pratika iha sistema kultivasaun. Agrikultóres kuda hare no prosesa sai foos hodi kompleta nesesidade ai-han ba familia kada uma kain maibe atu prosesa foos iha kualidade mak diak kompete iha merkaduria sei limitadu. Peskiza ne’e kompostu husi grupu rua ho membros 50 kada munisipíu. Viqueque no bobonaro. Dezeñu peskiza mak utilize dezenu bloku kompletu (RAK) ho tratamentu rua konteúdu be’e no makina dulas hare, ho replikasaun tolu kada grupu, kada replikasaun uja 1 kg fo’os. Resultadu peskiza hatudu katak konteudu be’e 12.2 pursentu foos tomak 74.31 %, persentajen foos tohar 31-64%, konteúdu be’e 10.3, 11.06, 12.2, 13.2, persentajen foos tomak 62-74% persentajen tohar 13-26%, persentajen foos ikis 10-18%. Konteúdu be 14.8,15.9 no 16.4 persentajen foos tomak 50-59%, persentajen fos tohar 24-31%. Variedade Ciherang persentajen foos tomak 60.47%, persentajen fos tohar 21.03%, persentajen foos ikis 15.5%. Variedade Lokal Mean. Persentajen foos tomak 59.74%, persentajen fos tohar 24.61%, persentajen foos ikis 15.65%, variedade IR64 persentajen foos tomak 56.09%, persentajen fos tohar 31.26% persentajen foos ikis, 12.64, makina Hercules fo persentajen foos tomak 56.09 no tohar barak 31.26% no hare kulit mak kahur ho foos 27 kg maka 7.027.00. Tipu makina Stakafo persentajen foos tomak 60.34% no foos tohar 21.66% total hare kulit mak kahur ho foos 3.034.00

The Distinctive Character of East Timorese Nationalism

Michael Leach, Swinburne University of Technology

This paper examines some the evolving character of East Timorese nationalism. It starts by examining the distinctive features of East Timorese nationalism, including its rapid transition from a conventional anti-colonialist narrative, mobilised against Portuguese colonialism, to one contesting Indonesia’s looming forced integration of the decolonising territory in 1975; and the way the East Timorese resistance employed ideas of an inner ‘spiritual domain’ (Chatterjee 1993) of identity. It then focuses on more recent shifts in ‘official’ East Timorese nationalism, in the way government discourses have invoked the arrival of Catholicism as the ‘affirmation of Timorese identity’ (RDTL 2015), and developed a modern nationalist narrative which partly reflects traditional ‘origin stories’. In this vein, it discusses recent government attempts to transform a national identity focussed on the history of the resistance to one mobilised around the goals of national development. Finally, it speculates on the future of East Timorese nationalism, reflecting on the implications of the ‘youth bulge’ in East Timorese society.

The Opportunities and Challenges to Timor-Leste becoming a Member of ASEAN

Jose Cornelio Guterres

In this research project, I intend to focus on the challenges and opportunities to Timor-Leste becoming a member of ASEAN. My comparative, historical research will examine the geo-political, security, economic, socio-cultural and ecological challenges and processes in Timor-Leste’s bid to become the newest member of ASEAN. Under Timor-Leste’s IVth Constitutional Government (2007-2012), an ASEAN Secretariat based in Dili was created in 2010. Under the V Constitutional Government (2012-2017) a Secretary of State for ASEAN Affairs was appointed and VI Constitutional Government changed it to vice minister to deal with this issue. Additionally, focal points were set up in each line Ministry in order to work on the preparation required to enter ASEAN. High level lobbies have also been conducted by Timorese top leaders with ASEAN countries’ leaders in order to allow Timor-Leste to become a permanent member of ASEAN. To a certain extent, there are some advantages that may be acquired in terms of security cooperation, socio-cultural and educational exchanges, and regional co-governance. Geopolitically, Timor-Leste might be `protected’ by other ASEAN countries from any external threats and other possible political domination, as well as it may be free to interact with other country members for long-term educational opportunities and labor migration exchanges without ‘red tape’ obstacles. On the other hand, since Timor-Leste is a newly independent country, it has to work hard to enhance its human resources capabilities in order to `compete’ in various aspects of life with other countries in the region, who may be more `dominating’ in international and regional as well. Objective of research: I intend to explore the processes in Timor-Leste’s endeavor to become a member of ASEAN. I wish to explore some opportunities that Timor-Leste may acquire from the membership in this regional governance association, in terms of security cooperation, socio-cultural, political, economic and ecological benefits. In line with this, I also intend to explore the challenges in terms of economic dependence, security, socio-economic, and political factors which Timorese may encounter either in the process or after being a member of ASEAN as a newly independent country.

Decentralisation in ‘Disadvantaged Regions’: Lessons from West Timor for the Challenges to Decentralisation in Timor-Leste

Dennis Shoesmith, Charles Darwin University

The initial findings of a pilot study on the experience of decentralisation in the regency of Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) in West Timor suggest the challenges that could face the actual operation of decentralised governance in the proposed new municipalities in Timor-Leste. TTS, and the province of Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) generally, are classified in Indonesia as poor and Disadvantaged Regions (DR, Daerah Tertinggal). The Ministry of Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigrations (KEMENDESA) in Jakarta is currently reconsidering the model of decentralisation in DRs. The social, economic and cultural profile of NTT would appear to share commonalities with that of rural Timor-Leste. The experience in NTT raises questions, then, regarding what is an appropriate model of decentralised governance in localities in Timor-Leste which lack the necessary human resources and economic resources to presently sustain an effective, autonomous and representative system of municipal governance.

Friction Across the Time and Space: The Colonial Encounter in Ending Violence Against Women in Timor-Leste

Damian Grenfell, RMIT University

Building strategies to prevent violence against women requires significant resources and careful planning that takes account of the contexts in which the implementation of programs will take effect. Despite recognition that programs should be adapted to local circumstance, the argument here is that they still tend to remain framed by the worldviews of implementers rather than that of the target communities. Put differently, an 'unreflexive modernism' appears to frequently dictate the allocation of resources, of what is understood to constitute good practice, and of what the possibilities might be for such interventions, with the result that traction may not be gained as per programming objectives. Friction and resistance are a risk until the basic assumptions of space, time and knowledge are disturbed and opened opened up to acknowledge basic difference rather than being dismissed, approached antagonistically or left unrecognised. While this paper focuses on efforts in relation to gender and violence, it also situated as a critique of the external interventions in Timor-Leste since independence.

How Patriarchy Shapes the Dynamics of Domestic Violence in Timor-Leste

Amy Duong & Brett Inder, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Monash University

A feminist approach to violence against women emphasizes the role of patriarchy as a key driver, as the prevalence of patriarchal norms can legitimize the use of violence against women. This study takes an empirical approach to understanding the links between patriarchal values and the experience of domestic violence in a developing country setting. Using data from the 2009-2010 Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey this study is able to measure patriarchal norms across households and relate these norms to the prevalence of domestic violence. A multi-variable statistical model reveals that men who demonstrate controlling behaviours towards their wives and patriarchal beliefs about female reproductive autonomy are significantly more likely to perpetrate domestic violence. Women who perceive wife-beating as a justifiable social practice are also more likely to experience violence from their partners. By identifying the specific patriarchal attitudes and behaviors that act as signals of domestic violence risk, the results from this study can inform primary prevention strategies and deepen understanding of the role of gender and social relations in shaping domestic violence outcomes.

Gendered I in IR: The Way I Write and the Representation of People Whom I Write About

Li-Li Chen, University of Florida

People do not exist in the discipline of international relations (IR), since they tend to be hidden in or abstracted away by the theories. How should we as IR scholars write about people we study and what impact writing have or could have on the people we write about? To answer these questions, I reflect on the role of researchers from my fieldwork in Timor-Leste. I argue that informants’ narratives make sense to readers not by themselves, but by situating in the broader discursive contexts we IR scholars create. Moreover, I argue that the narratives are gendered. The political nature of narratives encourages us who write in and for the IR discipline to bear more political and ethical responsibilities for our research subjects. I suggest that the writing process is a ceaseless self-reflection and meaning-making practice by including more consciousness to gender relations in and outside narratives.

Identifikasaun Pursentu Hare Musan Mak Lakon iha Munisipíu Ualu

Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai, Octaviana Ferreira Agostinho, Maria Fernandes, Maria Martins, Libanio Paulo da Cruz de Jesus, Salvador de Jeusu, Valerio Ximenes, Abril Fatima Lemos Soares , Antonio dos Santos, Lucio Henrique, Manuel Malimau Watu ano, ho Augusto Rangel, Ministerio de Agricultura e Pescas; Direção Naçional de Pesquisas, Estatistica e Informação Geografica; Departamento Inovação Teknologia e Pós Colheita; Grupu Agricultór

Seitòr agrikultura nudar xave desenvolvementu ekonomia ba nasaun mak maioria povu moris husi vida agrikultura, atividade pós kolleita hare hahu husi koa hare to’o produtu ne’ebe mak prontu atu konsumu no fa’an iha merkadu presiza atensaun maximu hodi bele hetan kualidade foos mak diak no mantein iha tempu naruk. Munisipíu ualu hanesan pilotu ba identifikasaun pursentu hare musan mak lakon nudar sentru produs hare iha Timor Leste implementa iha Munisipíu Aileu, Baucau, Bobonaru, Covalima, Lautem, Manatutu, Manufahi no Viqueque, hahu husi fulan Agostu to’o Dezembru 2016. Dezeñu peskiza bloku kompletu (RAK) fatór variedade no sistema agrikultór sai determinante ba variedade mak observa. Total área mak uza 24 ha, total replikasaun 72. Rezultadu peskiza hatudu katak hare musan lakon durante ko’a 16.35 %, hare musan lakon durante bou 17.60 %, hare musan lakon durante baku 2.53 %, hare musan lakon durante habai 10.37 %, no hare musan lakon durante rai 1.16 %, total pursentu hare musan mak lakon 47. 90 %. Variedade Nona manis pursentu hare musan mak lakon durante kolleita 4.4 %, variedade Nakroma 5.9 %, variedade IR64 pursentu hare musan mak lakon durante kolleita 6.1 %, variedade Ciherang pursentu hare musan mak lakon durante kolleita 7.1 %.

Posesamentu Tortila Batar Ikis i Teste Sabor

Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai, Octaviana Ferreira Agostinho, Maria Fernandes, Libanio Paulo da Cruz de Jesus, Cristina da C. Mendonca, Fransisca Lopes Hornai, Izabel Nazario Lobu, Alice Gomes no Manuel Monteiro, Ministerio de Agricultural e Pescas; Direção Naçional de Pesquisas; Estatistica e Informação Geografica; Departamento Inovação Teknologia e Pós Colheita; Grupu Agricultór

Iha era globalizasaun ezizensia ba kualidade no sabor iha prosesamentu batar importante tebes tamba jeralmente agrikultòr produs batar maibe komunidade iha baze seidauk iha koñesimentu kona ba prosesamentu mak diak no equipamentu teknolojía iha parte pós kolleita. Objetivu husi peskiza ida ne’e atu kria valor adisional batar ba diversifikasaun ai-han, atu hatene prosesamentu mak diak entre durasaun tempu no ahu mama been mak diferente. Peskiza ne’e implementa iha munisipiu Lautem, Bobonaro no Aileu husi fulan Outobru 2016 to’o Dezembru 2016. dezeñhu peskiza bloku kompletu (RAK) uza fatóres rua durasaun hoban batar ikis no konsentrasaun ahu mama been. Rezultadu peskiza hatudu katak nivel adoptasaun material no equipamentu ahu mama ho persentajen a’as liu 54.09 %, persentajen ki’ik liu fugaun elétriku 2.0%, Esprimentasaun horas nen hoban batar hikis ho ahu mama 200 gr hatudu preferensia mak diak liu atrai atu konsumu ho pursentu 77.13%, Morin 77.71%, mamar 64.35%, esprimentasaun ida ne’e mos hatudu sabor mak diak liu wainhira han sinti belit ho persentajen 71.93%, rahun 77.44% no sinti gostu wainhira han 75.97%, preferensia sabor tuir jeneru ne’ebe mak hili wainhira han fo sabor gostu feto pursentu 83.2 % no mane 73.5%.

Testu Adaptasaun Hare Hibrida iha Timor Leste

Izaulino Ninash Nabaish, Horacio do Rego, Zhu doang’an, no Ermelinda Maria Lopes Hornai , Ministerio de Agricultura e Pescas; Agensia Yuanlongping High Tech

Testu adaptasaun hare hibrida nudar esprimentu dahuluk iha Timor Leste hodi koko variedades sira nia adaptasaun no produsaun tuir klima no kondisaun. Variedade sira ne’e bele sai sasukat ba variedades ne’ebè ezisti ona atu responde nesesidade agrikultòr. Peskiza ida ne’e halao kolaborasaun servisu ho Ministério de Agricultura e Pescas (MAP) no Agensia YuanLongPing High Tech Xina, ho objetivu dezemvolve hare hibrida. variedade tolu ne’ebè koko iha esperimentu ne’e maka NP833, NP840 no NP 856. Peskiza ida ne’e implementa iha Munisipiu Baucau, Bobonaru no Manatutu hahu husi tinan 2008 to’o 2014. Dezeñu peskiza nebe utiliza maka bloku kompletu (RAK) fatòr variedade no adovus NPK. Total àrea kada munisipiu 900m2 ho total replikasaun 27. Rezultadu Teste adaptasaun hatudu katak mèdiu produsaun husi tinan 2008 to’o 2014 hare hibrida variedade NP 833 ho adobu NPK 120 kg/ha (9.0 ton / ha) maka prudusaun a’as, variedade NP 856 fo produsaun ki’ik liu 6.5 t/h.

Processos de Objetificação nos Manuais de Ensino de Literatura em Timor-Leste

Daniel Batista Lima Borges, Universidade Paris Ouest Nanterre

Esta proposta visa analisar processos de objetificação no material de ensino de literatura em Timor-Leste. Pretendemos abordar a objetificação a partir da Teoria Literária, tendo os manuais de ensino de literatura empregados na rede pública de ensino secundário como objeto de análise. Entendemos objetificação como os processos pelos quais determinados fenômenos são produzidos enquanto objetos, ou coisas, assim compreendidos desde o ponto de vista da ontologia ocidental hegemónica como desprovidos de autoconsciência, agência e movimento próprio; são também considerados depositários passíveis da ação humana. A retirada dos artefatos de seus contextos locais de produção e manejo – que quase sempre implica extração de certos significados e eficácia a eles atribuídos – faz parte deste processo de objetificação. Assim, pretendemos focar nossa análise a) na objetificação de aspectos da cultura timorense abordada no manual, presente no tratamento de narrativas orais e de explicações sobre aspectos contextuais dessas narrativas e b) na objetificação de obras literárias em relação a seus contextos de origem.

O Contributo da Pedagogia de Género para a Formação de Professores PLE/L2 no Contexto Timorense

Justino da Silva

Este artigo parte do conhecimento do contexto de aprendizagem do português em cinco escolas privadas e católicas do ensino básico em Díli, Timor-Leste, abordando o ensino de uma língua (LE/L2), para sustentar a aplicabilidade de um modelo de formação de professores (LE/L2) no contexto timorense à luz da Pedagogia de Género, ou seja, os diferentes textos que apresentam uma coesão interna idêntica e o mesmo propósito social em resposta a contextos culturais determinados. A pesquisa, inspirada nos estudos da escola de Sydney e na teoria da Pedagogia de Género, mostrou-se relevante no ensino de línguas, pois os professores adquiriram capacidades suficientes em trabalhar com diferentes géneros textuais, sugerindo-se a sua adoção na formação de professores para melhorar as suas práticas e superar as dificuldades no ensino de português.

Desvios na Representação Grafemática por Aprendentes de Português L2: O Caso das Fricativas

Ana Caetano, Instituto do Oriente

A análise de um corpus de produções escritas por uma amostra de informantes selecionada – um grupo de Professores do Ensino Secundário Técnico-Vocacional de Timor-Leste – permitiu perceber que a representação grafemática das consoantes fricativas se afigura como a área mais sensível no domínio do sistema consonântico do Português Europeu que, neste contexto de plurilinguismo e de contacto de línguas, se assume como Língua Oficial e L2 para a maioria dos timorenses. Nesta conformidade, este artigo tem como principais objetivos: (i) analisar e sistematizar os desvios em palavras encontradas num corpus de textos que impliquem a produção escrita de consoantes fricativas de acordo com as formas ortográficas atestadas no PE padrão; (ii) perceber as dificuldades na representação das consoantes fricativas (relação grafema/fonema, com especial incidência sobre as sibilantes); (iii) determinar as eventuais causas que possam estar na origem dos desvios linguísticos.

Looking Back and Looking Forward: Questioning How Trauma is Understood and Addressed in Timor-Leste

Emily Toome, RMIT University

International attention to post-conflict trauma grew significantly since the late 1990s, with psychologists, peace-building practitioners and cultural analysts among those who expressed concern that unresolved effects of trauma pose an enduring threat to individual and societal wellbeing. Such concerns informed commentary and interventions addressing trauma in Timor-Leste following widespread violence during the Indonesian occupation and later socio-political crisis, and concerns continue to appear in discourses and programs today. However there is not always clarity in how trauma is defined, nor consensus in how trauma best be addressed. In this paper I present a brief overview of existing literature on trauma in Timor-Leste and introduce the early direction of my doctoral research on this topic. Putting forth some of my unanswered questions, I invite discussion of different ways that trauma is understood, talked about and addressed by various locals and malae (foreigners) in Timor-Leste.

A Characterization of Immigrants in Timor-Leste

Zulmira Ximenes da Costa, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

There is a need to obtain a greater understanding of immigrant communities came into East Timor; this work has as main objective to characterize the population of immigrant enters or residing in East Timor. In particular, there is a need to make a general mapping to characterize immigrants and foreign workers in East Timor. We consider the 261,013 immigrants who are legally registered immigrants in the Immigration Police in the district Díli from 2009 to June 2014. Moreover, we analyze, for the same period, foreign workers in thirteen districts for a total of 4980 individuals. Based on the general mapping of immigrants identified that there are 176 different nationalities of immigrants who is came to East Timor. Most of these immigrants are Indonesian, Portuguese, South African, Brazilian and Australian. And since most representative submitted the visa are Class I, Work permit and visa Special Stay. We start by carrying out a basic descriptive research in order to characterize the foreign workers in relation to several variables and investigated some associations between them by contingency tables. It should be noted that most immigrants are man, and the more representative the Indonesian nationality and more varied occupation is technical. We show that there is statistical evidence to consider that an immigrant male gender, belonging to a country and the Asians have come in search of work are easier to get a job. The age of the workers were more active aged 31 years to 45 years.

Wellbeing, Inequality and Environmental Racism – Applying Brazilian Experience to Timor-Leste

Cintia Gillam & Anthony Charles, Saint Mary’s University

This article examines the contribution of the 3-dimensional wellbeing lens, which includes the material, relational and subjective dimensions of wellbeing, to the analysis of factors that affect wellbeing in impoverished communities, particularly inequality and environmental racism. Entrenched inequality, including environmental racism, leads to racialized spaces, largely occupied by non-white community members. Such spaces are often hazardous from an environmental perspective, lying near industrial sites. This is illustrated with an example from coastal Brazil. On the positive side, strong community leadership in this Brazilian community helps to outweigh the negative effects of social inequality and racism on community members, by implementing wellbeing-focused programs. This presentation seeks to apply these insights from Brazil to the situation in Timor-Leste, exploring how inequality and environmental racism lead to racialized spaces, how this affects the wellbeing of impoverished communities, and what can be done in terms of community leadership and policy aiming to improve the wellbeing of ethnic minority communities in environmentally hazardous areas.

Review of the Roadmap for Implementing the SDGs in Timor-Leste: Achievements and Limitations

Jerry Courvisanos & Matias Boavida, Federation University Australia; Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e   Report or Presentation; March 2018 recommendations to the incoming government (also Tetum)

On 23 September 2015 under Government Resolution Nº34/2015, the Timor-Leste Government (RDTL) adopted the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for attainment by 2030. The “roadmap”, as set up by the Prime Minster, His Excellency Dr. Rui Maria de Araújo and his SDG Working Group, specifies how the Government prioritises the SDGs in the context of its strong commitment to the 2011-2030 Strategic Development Plan (SDP). This paper reviews the roadmap by asking the following question: How has the RDTL been able to harmonise the SDGs with the existing SDP that currently guides policy in the economy? Based on an “eco-sustainable framework” developed in prior publications, this research identifies both the achievements and limitations of this roadmap. A deep six-month country-wide field-based method was undertaken for this review. Elements of a transition path towards an alternative sustainable development economic development for this fledgling nation are noted at the end.

Supporting Timorese Leadership in Development Programs

Regina Amaral, Gaspar da Silva, Zelia Hornay, Carlito Gabriel, Johana Shinta Dewi, & Kathryn Robertson

Development programs in Timor-Leste often talk about the need for capacity building and the importance of developing Timorese leadership for programming. While all will agree that these aspects of programming are essential, we may not always have a shared vision of what our end goal actually looks like and how to get there. We also may have different understandings of key concepts such as “capacity” and “leadership”. Differences in terms of education and work experience also contribute to complications and misunderstandings. The process of professional development involves not only skills but also needs reflection on approaches and why we are doing what we are doing. This process is very much about change as both national and international staff move onto new roles. This presentation will share experiences from one team, which worked together in an international NGO.

What are the Main Drivers of Childhood Stunting in Timor Leste

Maria Goncalves & Robert L. Williams, University of Western Australia

Timor Leste suffers from very high rates of childhood stunting. The causes of stunting are complex and multifactorial, with no single cause. The 2016 global nutrition report includes data on stunting and other indicators for 98 countries including Timor-Leste. The report includes data of consumption, gender and water and sanitation indicators for all 98 countries. This paper analysed the data set from the global nutrition report and other sources, with particular focus on Timor Leste, to suggest the factors most affecting childhood stunting. Many indicators are correlated with the level of childhood stunting across the 98 countries, but this paper focuses on the main drivers to Timor-Leste. Of the indicators tested, low calorie intake and low diet diversity appears to have the most casual impact on childhood stunting in Timor-Leste. This paper suggests that low calorie intake is due to low productivity of the current farming system. We suggest that the most rapid improvements in childhood malnutrition will be based on improving agricultural productivity.

Prevalensia Infestasaun Trichuris Suis ba Fahi iha Suco Lahane Oriental, Posto Administrativo Nain Feto, Municipio Dili

Paulina Martins da Cruz, Acacio Cardoso Amaral, Lindalva, ho Maria Jeronimo Viana, Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e

Trichuris suis ka lumbriga sikote nu’udar parazita nematoda ne’ebé lokaliza komun iha intestinu (sekum) no tolun ne’ebé iha hanesan bipolar. Objetivu husi peskiza ne’e atu identifika no sura total lumbriga tolun T.suis ba fahi. Peskiza ida ne’e hala’o iha loron 22 fulan Maio no hotu iha loron 18 fulan Juñu, 2016. Amostra feses ne’ebé rekolla hamotuk fahi 89 ne’e determina husi dezeñu prevalensia 50% ne’ebé mak kalkula tuir total animal iha suco refere hanutuk 1253. Ezaminasaun ba amostra hirak ne’e uza teknika McMaster hodi sura lumbriga tolun ne’ebé identifika iha feses. Rezultadu husi ezaminasaun microscopika hatudu katak, 28 amostra feses mak pozitiva ba infestasaun T.suis ho total EPG mediu 281 no prevalensia 31%. Trichuris suis afeta barak liu ba fahi ho idade husi fulan 6 ba karaik.

Teste Adaptasaun ba Batar Varidade oin 24 iha Timor Leste

Leandro C.R. Pereira, Felisberto Amaral Soares, Armindo Moises, no Denisia Raquela Soares de Brito, Ministerio da Agrikultura no Peskas; Seeds of Life

Varidade batar ( Zea mays L. ) ne’ebe iha potensia atu hadia reultadu produsaun koko ona iha testu replikadu iha ona agro-ekolojikal oioin iha Timor Leste laran tomak (Loes, Betano,Ululefa ho Aileu) durante tinan 2014-2016. Objectivo husi peskiza ida ne’e atu avalia kona ba oinsa Atu buka hatene batar nia adaptasaun ba iklima no rai iha Timor Leste, Atu halo komparasaun entre batar variedade local no Introdus. Iha tinan 2013 direcção DNPEIG introdus tan fini foun hamutuk varidade 19 mai husi Nasaun Nigeria. Ba varidade foun 19 ne’e tuir fontes hateten katak varidade hirak ne’e nakonu ho vitamina A, resistensia ba moras Downy meldew no kontra veneno aflatoxin. Iha tinan 2014-2016 komesa halo replikadu batar atu buka hatene varidade batar oin 19 nia produsaun liu husi peskiza adaptasaun (uja varidade 19 inklui local 5), replikasaun 3 ho distancia kuda 75cm x 25 cm. Rezultadu produsaun batar halao iha fatin hat iha tinan 2014/2016, maibe iha tinan 2014 halao deit iha fatin rua hanesan iha Betano (Same) meú produsaun 1.8 t/ha no iha Centru Loes ho nia meú produsaun 2.4 t/ha. Iha tinan 2014/2015 halao iha fatin 4 ho nia meú produsaun mak as iha Ululefa (Maubisse) 3.2 t/ha, no meú produsaun kiik iha Stasaun Aileu 1.2 t/ha. Iha tinan 2015/2016 meú produsaun nebe mak as iha stasaun Ululefa (Maubisse) 3.8 t/ha ho Centru Loes meú produsaun 3.7 t/ha depois meú produsaun nebe mak kiík liu iha stasun Pesquisa Aileu ho meú produsaun 0.1 t/ha.

Sistema Halo to’os Uza Modelu Liña no Espesies Leguminosa (Foremungu no Forekeli) ba Produsaun Hare Rai Maran Lokál Fatumasin (Oriza Sativa, l)

Inácio Savio Pereira, Peskizador Viqueque Villa

Hare (Oryza sativa L.) sai aihan nebe prinsipal ba ema hotu-hotu iha mundu no sai numeru dahuluk. Aihoris ne’e iha nia kompozisaun hanesan karbohidrate nebe diak teb-tebes. Iha Timor Leste, to’os nain sira wainhira kuda aihoris iha to’os ida tomak, la atensaun ba sistema kuda kahur no modelu liña ba foremungu no forekeli hodi kuda kahur ho hare rai maran fatumasin iha tempu nebe hanesan. Ho objetivu katak atu hasa'e seguransa aihan iha rai laran liu husi kriasaun no produsaun hodi asegura aihan iha rai laran, buka hatene impaktu liña no espesies leguminosa nebe serve, konserva agrikultura ho leguminosa nebe diak, nomos hamosu inovasaun foun iha rai laran. Metodolójia nebe uza ba peskiza ne'e mak metodolójia eksperimental hanesan dezeñu tratamentu husi esperimentais sira ne’e hamosu dezeñu fatórial hafahe kantedeiru (petak terbagi-split plots design) ba fatór rua ho niveis diferente ho naran dezeñu randomiza grupu kompletu (DRGK) ho lian Inglês Two Way Anova In Randomized Blocks). Kada variaveis nebe observa, sei análize ho sidik ragam ba taraf 5 %, karik iha influenza nebe konkretu (signifikante), sei análize kontinuasaun ho metodu / koko duncanea ho taraf p = 5%. Bazeia ba rezultadu nebe análize katak laiha interasaun entre fatór rua ba produtividade (t/ha). Tratamentu entre legumes ba forekeli ho rezultadu produsaun 2.2 t/ha. Tratamentu entre legumes ba foremungu ho rezultadu produsaun 1.2 t/ha. Tratamentu non legume ho rezultadu produsaun 2.7 t/ha. Tratamentu entre liñas ba liña hat ho rezultadu produsaun 2.4 t/ha. Tratamentu entre liñas ba liña ida ho rezultadu produsaun 1.8 t/ha.

The Importance of Community Engagement in Delivering Rheumatic Heart Disease Secondary Prophylaxis in Timor Leste

Kimberly Davis, Januario Dos Santos, Bo Remenyi, Laura Korte, Anthony Draper, Timothy Johnson, & Joshua Francis, Royal Darwin Hospital; Bairo Pite Clinic, Dili; Menzies School of Health Research; Centre for Disease Control, Darwin; RhEACH, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in Timor-Leste, a country where health literacy is also poor. We conducted a screening study to determine the prevalence of RHD in school-aged children, with secondary aims of providing community education about RHD and establishing a RHD register for delivery of secondary prophylaxis with 3-4 weekly benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections. Adherence to secondary prophylaxis was measured prospectively and is reported here. Of 1,403 children screened, 33 were enrolled on the RHD register and commenced on secondary prophylaxis (26 definite RHD, 7 borderline RHD). 79% received ≥80% of scheduled injections in the first 6 months of the program. Only one patient received <50% of scheduled injections. In conclusion, effective community engagement and education, linked to the establishment of the first RHD register for secondary prophylaxis in Timor-Leste, has resulted in very high rates of adherence to secondary prophylaxis.

Broken Hearts in Timor-Leste: An Echocardiography-Based Prevalence Study of Rheumatic Heart Disease in School Children

Kimberly Davis, Bo Remenyi, Laura Korte, N Bayley, E Paratz, B Reeves, A Appelbe, A Cochrane, Anthony Draper, Timothy Johnson, K Roberts, & Joshua Francis, Royal Darwin Hospital; Bairo Pite Clinic, Dili; Menzies School of Health Research; East Timor Hearts Fund, Melbourne; Cairns Base Hospital; Centre for Disease Control, Darwin; RhEACH, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth

The prevalence of Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has not previously been described. We conducted the first echocardiography-based screening study to determine the prevalence of RHD in school-aged Timorese children in Dili and Ermera. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected and all students had a limited echocardiogram looking for evidence of RHD. 1403 children were screened; 741 (53%) were female and the median age was 11 years. Point prevalence of definite RHD was 1.9%, borderline 1.6% (total 3.4%). Borderline or definite RHD was more common in Ermera than Dili though the difference was not statistically significant (4.1% vs 2.2%; p=0.05). Definite RHD was more prevalent in girls than boys (2.8% vs 0.8%; p<0.01). Congenital heart disease was identified in 20 children (1.4%). All children were linked back to primary care. In conclusion, RHD is prevalent in Timor-Leste, with some of the highest rates observed in the world.

Collaborative Governance in Health in Timor-Leste

Belinda Anne Lawton, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University

Reaching Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a significant challenge globally; a challenge more sharply evident in post-conflict countries with nascent institutions. The global momentum for UHC has refocused attention on where resources might be drawn from to help achieve this goal. One option is to enhance engagement with non-government, not-for-profit health service providers. The question of how to build better collaboration, e.g. trust, between state and non-state sectors was identified in 2009 in a participatory study by Walker et al for the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research as a priority area of research; however, the academic literature has remained largely silent. One approach to this question is through the lens of collaborative governance, specifically the framework proposed in the public administration literature by Emerson, Nabatchi & Balogh in 2011. This paper will reflect on the experience of applying this framework in the context of health in Timor-Leste and offer some initial results from the fieldwork undertaken.

O Arquivo Nacional no Quadro das Novas Investigações Sobre Timor-Leste

Cristina Prata, Arquivo Nacional de Timor-Leste

Em Timor-Leste, logo após a independência, é reconhecido o papel da memória na construção do país, sendo criadas diferentes instituições as quais cabe contar como foi. Em 1999 a UNTAET apoia a criação do Nacional Records and Archives Services Seccion, cuja existência será formalizada em 2002, como Arquivo Nacional, tutelado pelo Ministério da Administração Interna. Constitui, hoje, a principal fonte de documentos sobre os últimos 50 anos da Administração Colonial Portuguesa e os 24 anos da Administração Indonésia. São muitos e importantes os documentos sobre Timor-Leste existentes, também, em Arquivos internacionais. Países como a Austrália, Holanda, Indonésia, Japão, China e, sobretudo, Portugal guardam coleções essenciais à escrita da História deste país. Considero, no entanto, essencial sublinhar o valor excecional dos documentos existentes em Timor-Leste. São únicos. Milhares de registos que nos permitem conhecer, de forma mais aproximada, o território que em 1945 sobrevive à ocupação do Japão, no âmbito da II Grande Guerra, e os últimos 30 anos da Administração Colonial Portuguesa. Informação abundante que nos dará a saber, também, a profundidade e o alcance da Administração Indonésia, sem a qual a própria atuação da Resistência não será avaliada com rigor. Neste sentido, a nossa comunicação procurará apresentar e contextualizar os fundos documentais à guarda do Arquivo Nacional, instituição de singular relevo no quadro das “Novas investigações sobre Timor- Leste”.

A ‘Timorização’ da História: Relato de Experiência na Produção de Material Didáctico

Rogério Sávio Ma’averu, Ministério da Educação

Desde 2014 o ministério da Educação tem investido na elaboração de materiais didáticos baseados nas perspectivas locais e valorizando a participação de professores e intelectuais timorenses. Nesta apresentação proponho entender estas mudanças como a “timorização” do currículo da educação básica. Tomando como referência o campo da ciência sociais especialmente da disciplina história, proponho analisar como essa tendência tem marcado diferentes momentos da educação em Timor-Leste. As minhas experiências na confecção de materiais didáticos da disciplina história dentro do currículo de 2014, indicaram que as maiores desafios enfrentados para dar continuidade ao processo de “timorização” da educação dizem respeito: a falta de uniformidade das informações, ausência de historiografia sobre Timor-Leste, que dê relevância aos múltiplos atores que constrói a história do país.

Centro Audiovisual Max Stahl, Um Recurso Essencial para a Investigação e o Ensino

Max Stahl e Joana Gaio, Centro Audiovisual Max Stahl

O Centro Audiovisual Max Stahl criado em 2004 em Timor-Leste, com o apoio da Unesco, que em 2011 classifica o património aqui preservado como “Memória do Mundo”, constitui uma das principais fontes de documentos audiovisuais sobre a História deste país. Nesta comunicação, que intitulámos “Centro Audiovisual Max Stahl, Um Recurso essencial para a Investigação e o Ensino”, queremos aprofundar a reflexão sobre o património documental recolhido e mantido por esta instituição, e em breve, numa copia de espelho, pela Universidade de Coimbra em Portugal. Queremos estimular o diálogo com pesquisadores e professores, que constitua motivação para que façam uso dos documentos, ou trabalhem de forma colaborativa com a nossa equipa. Para começar uma discussão das possibilidades neste Arquivo e a sua coleção reconhecida pelo UNESCO em 2013 como Memória Mundial, o CAMSTL propõe mostrar um filme recém-feita pelo Max Stahl para a Universidade de Coimbra na base dos conteúdos do Arquivo. O filme de 52mins ‘A Língua, A Luta, A Nação’ trata da questão da língua Portuguesa em Timor-Leste. O filme em Português com muito material em tetun, terá uma transcrição dos textos em Português e em tetun, e uma tradução textual em inglês. Ampliando esta discussão Informaremos sobre os trabalhos em curso para a identificação, organização, descrição, transcrição e tradução dos documentos, dando, porem, maior desenvolvimento às acções desenvolvidas nos últimos anos para garantir a preservação e o acesso a os 4500 horas sobre Timor em tratamento no sistema digital. Neste âmbito, a parceria com o Instituto Audiovisual Frances (INA) iniciada em 2007 e o protocolo com a Universidade de Timor Loro’sae e a Universidade de Coimbra, assinado no passado mês de Dezembro, constituiem estratégias sólidas para a construção de pontes entre o Centro Audiovisual e as comunidades escolar e académica. Que documentos preservamos e como? Que informação continuamos a recolher e porquê? Como consultar e fazer uso? Como criar recursos pedagógicas destinados a diferentes níveis de ensino? Estas são algumas das perguntas às quais tentaremos dar resposta, sublinhando o papel central que o Centro Audiovisual Max Stahl pode e deve ter, no âmbito das “Novas investigações sobre Timor- Leste”.

Impaktu Traballadór iha Inglatera no Norte Irlandia ba Prosperiedade Familia iha Munisipiu Laútem

Joviano Salves Reis, Luciano Dias Cabral, no Jonas Vidal Valentim

Peskíza ida ne’e realiza ho nia objetivu atu hatene impaktu sosiu-ekonomiku husi traballadór sira ne’ebé oras ne’e servisu iha Inglatera no Norte Irlandia ba Prosperiedade familia iha Munisipiu Lautém. Modelu peskíza ne’e halao ho maneira survey no observasaun direta ba objetu mudansa sira ne’ebé akontese liu husi lista pergunta sira ne’ebé instala ona iha tablet nune’e bele hafasil prosesu intervista. Prosesu tratamentu ba dokumentu nesesariu sira presisa tebes apoiu rekursu finanseiru; hahu’u husi dokumentu sira hanesan Sertidaun Batismu Proponente no Inan-Aman, Sertidaun Kazamentu Inan-Aman, Sertidaun RDTL, Kartaun Eleitoral, Passaporte RDTL, Billete Identidade Portugal no Pasaporte Portugal. Rezultadu peskíza hatudu katak to’o oras ne’e familia uma laran iha pursentu 84.2 mak hateten katak iha uma laran iha nain ida mak koras ne’e servisu iha Inglatera no Norte Irlandia, nain rua iha pursentu 11.9 no nain tolu ba leten iha pursentu 4. Entre husi sira ne’e, feto iha nain 44 no mane hamutuk 359 no oras ne’e dau-dauk iha pursentu 60.8 mak sei klosan no pursentu 39.2 mak kaben nain. Antes ne’e okupasaun traballadór sira, iha pursentu 62.61 mak dezempregu, pursentu 17.02 nu’udar estudante, pursentu 9.44 nu’udar agrikultor, pursentu 3.65 nu’udar kondutor no restu balun funsionariu, negosiante, peskador, lideransa komunitaria no seluk tan. Liu husi remitansia hirak ne’ebé traballadór sira husi Inglatera no Norte Irlandia iha, implika ona ba mudansa ekonomia famila hodi bele moris iha kondisaun ne’ebé prosperu hanesan kondisaun hela fatin, maneira konsumu, re-investimentu, edukasaun no seluk tan. Allende impaktu ekonomiku; iha mos impaktu sosial hanesan aspeitu solidariedade, valores kultural, valores negosiu no divertimentu aktualizadu. Mesmu husi impaktu postivu ne’ebé naktemin, iha mos impaktu negativu ba valores sosiu-ekonomiku hanesan partisipasaun liu husi lia moris no lia mate sei menos, mosu konflitu horizontal entre familia sira wanhira mosu problema abandona fen no oan inklui deve, kuran kontrola husi inan aman ikus mai labarik bele abandona eskola no iha tendensia ba ransu ho livre. Husi rezultadu hirak iha leten hakarak rekomenda ba parte governu atu koopera ho Governu Inglatera nune’e bele hafasil prosesu servisu esterior iha rai ne’eba tamba hare husi parte remitansia ne’ebé traballadór sira oferese mai Timor-Leste bele tulun tebes hodi dezenvolve povu no nasaun doben Timo-Leste.

Bainhira Bayu-Undan sei Maran: Dezafiu no Oportunidade sira

Charles Scheiner, La’o Hamutuk. 9 MB PowerPoint ka 3 MB PDF aprezentasaun, ka artigu tomak (3 MB)

Rendimentu husi petroleum dala ruma labele ona kontinua atu apoiu Timor-Leste nia ekonomia no finansas estadu nian, no nasaun ida ne’e tenke hetan ai-han seluk. Durante tinan 14 ukun rasik a’an, osan husi esportasaun mina no gas – liu liu kampu Bayu-Undan, fasilita kriasaun instituisaun estadu nian, no ajuda povu atu sai husi periodu brutalidade, funu no estraga la halimar. Maibé mina rai sei remata lalais: ita simu ona 97% husi reseita husi projetu petróleu dezenvolve ona, no laiha serteza kona ba reseita tan husi indústria estrativa. Aprezentasaun ida ne’e sei esplika istória peskiza no esplorasaun mina no gas iha Timor-Leste, posibilidade atu hetan rendimentu tan husi petróleu ka mineiras, no mehi nafatin atu hetan rikeza husi li’ur. Aprezentasaun mós diskute alternativa sira prátiku no sustentável liu, bazeia ba Timor-Leste nia riku soin umanu no renovavel.

Mina, Deve no Sustentabilidade: Timor-Leste nia Planu Empréstimu no nia Implikasaun ba Futuru

Niall Almond, La’o Hamutuk. 2 MB PowerPoint ka 2 MB PDF

Iha 2012, Timor-Leste komesa empresta osan husi instituisaun internasionál hodi finansa projetu infrastrutura sira, no dezde tempu ne’ebá Timor-Leste asina ona kontratu empréstimu sanulu-resin-rua. Timor-Leste nia rekursu petrolíferu besik hotu ona, no ekonomia naun-petrolíferu seidauk iha mudansa boot - maioria kreximentu ekonómiku dezde independénsia akontese de’it tanba governu gasta osan mina no gás barak, la’ós tanba atividade produtívu. Ajénsia internasionál sira no observadór independente seluk fó ona avizu katak Governu tenke kuidadu bainhira atu foti deve tan, tanba situasaun ekonómiku sei fraku hela. Maske nune’e, Orsamentu Estadu 2017 iha planu atu empresta osan barak liu kompara ho uluk. Paper ida ne’e sei analiza Governu Timor-Leste nia deve agora no iha futuru, projetu sira ne’ebé hetan prioridade, no impaktu ba Timor-Leste nia sustentabilidade ekonómiku. Paper sei diskute mós esperiénsia husi nasaun seluk ne’ebé foti deve ne’ebé boot no ikus liu sira la bele selu fali, no paper mós fó sujestaun lubuk ida atu oinsá mak Timor-Leste bele evita destinu aat hanesan ne’e.

Uma Caracterização Dos Imigrantes Em Timor-Leste

Zulmira Ximenes da Costa, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

Uma vez que existe uma grande necessidade de se obter um maior conhecimento das comunidades imigrantes que entram em Timor-Leste, este trabalho tem como principal objectivo caracterizar a população de imigrantes em Timor-Leste e em particular, fazer um mapeamento geral e caracterizar os trabalhadores estrangeiros que chegam ao nosso país. Consideramos os 261013 imigrantes que estão inscritos legalmente na Polícia de Imigração no distrito de Díli entre 2009 e Junho 2014. Analisamos, para o mesmo período, os trabalhadores estrangeiros espalhados nos treze distritos num total de 4980 indivíduos. Com base no mapeamento geral dos imigrantes identificamos que existem 176 nacionalidades diferentes que entraram em Timor-Leste. A maioria dessas imigrantes são Indonésios, Portugueses, Sul Africanos, Brasileiros e Australianos. Os vistos que submeteram mais frequentemente foram os vistos de Classe I (turístico), Vistos de trabalho e Vistos de Estadia Especial. Começamos por levar a efeito uma investigação básica de tipo descritivo para uma caracterização dos trabalhadores estrangeiros relativamente a diferentes variáveis e investigamos algumas associações entre elas via tabelas de contingência. Refira-se que a maioria dos imigrantes é do sexo masculino, sendo a nacionalidade mais representativa a Indonésia e a ocupação mais comum é a de “Técnico”. Mostramos que há evidência estatística para considerar que o perfil do imigrante que vem para Timor-Leste é do género masculino, pertence aos países Asiáticos, entra no país à procura de trabalho e que facilmente arranja emprego. As idade dos trabalhadores imigrantes variam entre os 31 e os 45 anos, encontrando-se estes indivíduos em idade activa.

Bem-Estar, Desigualdade e Racismo Ambiental - Aplicando a Experiência Brasileira a Timor-Leste

Cintia Gillam e Anthony Charles, Universidade Saint Mary’s

Este artigo examina a contribuição da lente de bem-estar tridimensional, que inclui as dimensões material, relacional e subjetiva do bem-estar, à análise de fatores que afetam o bem-estar em comunidades empobrecidas, particularmente a desigualdade e o racismo ambiental. A desigualdade social, incluindo o racismo ambiental, leva a espaços racializados, em grande parte ocupados por membros de comunidade de não-brancos. Tais espaços são frequentemente com risco ambiental, situados perto de locais industriais. Isso é ilustrado com um exemplo do litoral brasileiro. Do lado positivo, a forte liderança comunitária nesta comunidade brasileira ajuda a superar os efeitos negativos da desigualdade social e do racismo nos membros da comunidade, implementando programas focados no bem-estar destas. Esta apresentação busca aplicar essas percepções do Brasil à situação em Timor-Leste, explorando como a desigualdade e o racismo ambiental levam a espaços racializados; como isso afeta o bem-estar das comunidades empobrecidas e o que pode ser feito em termos de liderança comunitária e política visando a melhorar o bem-estar das comunidades de minorias étnicas em áreas de risco ambiental.

Mulheres, Gênero e Poder Entre Populações Indígenas do Timor Português: Um Ensaio Bibliográfico

Kelly Silva, Universidade de Brasília

Este ensaio aborda as posições sociais das mulheres e as implicações das representações de gênero sobre elas entre populações indígenas do Timor Português pós II- Guerra Mundial. Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica que tem como base a produção antropológica acadêmica e administrativa (missionária e laica) elaborada entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980. Argumento que as mulheres se encontravam, de um modo geral, em uma posição comparativamente subalterna nas dinâmicas de reprodução social coletivas e superiores, desde os pontos de vista locais. Tal fato derivava, por uma lado, da conformação das estruturas sociais locais e, de outro, da dissociação entre sexo e gênero. Este ensaio oferece subsídios para dar sentido à aparente contradição entre o fato do feminino, como um princípio classificatório de gênero, ser associado à superioridade entre muitas populações leste-timorenses e as mulheres, ao mesmo tempo, estarem frequentemente em posições subalternas nos espaços e eventos relacionados com a reprodução coletiva. Argumento que os modos como o princípio feminino e a ideia de fertilidade são manejados em arenas rituais serve à produção e reprodução da dominância dos homens nas dinâmicas de reprodução social coletivas.

Designing a Legal Framework to Combat Tax Avoidance and Evasion in the Area of Transfer Pricing: A Proposal for Timor-Leste

Jo Monteiro, London School of Economics and Political Science

In the absence of inadequate legal regime to combat tax avoidance and evasion in the area of Transfer Pricing (TP) in today’s globally traded economy can become a highly daunting exercise for any state from regulatory perspective. As such, TL as a developing state, where its tax administration has only been established for 15 years, is in no exception. This paper justifies that TL’s current legal framework is arguably inadequate to address the present and emerging challenges in the area of TP. It critically assesses as to how the OECD TP Model can be adjusted and transplanted in TL. In assessing the OECD TP Model, Vietnam is selected as a case study for three reasons. Firstly, Vietnamese Decree of 2016 on Enterprises with Related-­‐Party Transactions (Draft Decree”) is largely based on the OEDC TP Model. Secondly, since Vietnam has only started in 2016 to introduce TPR, it is assumed that the development process leading up to implementation of TPR in Vietnam might share some similarities with TL in terms of administration and compliance. Thirdly, it then reveals what lessons that TL may learn from Vietnam. The last part of the paper is a policy analysis and recommendation on how TL should proceed in the design and implementation of TPR without undermining the importance of TL’s current and future socio-­‐economic and political development.

Governance System Based on Customary Law for Resource Management in Timor Leste

Naori Miyazawa, University of Tokyo

The objective of this paper is to explore governance system based on customary law for resource management in Timor Leste. After the nation building process started, many of national leaders have recognized the importance of legal pluralism, which accommodate multi-level law tolerantly, rather than legal centralism. This direction has been reflected in various policies. The most specific examples are that the constitution clearly mentions recognition of customs. Recently, many institutions support the application and practice of customary law. This paper will explore how the governance system of the customary law has been influenced by such support from outsider. Some case studies will be introduced for more detail analysis and discussion.

Democracy in the Post Conflict Society: Draft Land Law Dispute Between Civil Society and Politics in Timor-Leste

Ryota Ogawa, Universidade Nacional Timor-Lorosa’e

On March 2012 President José Ramos-Horta veto draft land law (Special regime for the determination of owner of immovable property) and send back it to parliament. This research focus on the process of the draft land law in 2009-2012 to reveal the inside of the early stage of democracy in Timor-Leste. Author regarded Civil society (NGOs) as a player that complement the democracy and analysed how NGOs influenced the decision of government, parliament, and president. Rede ba Rai (land network), the consortium of NGOs, campaigned aggressively for repealing the draft land law to preserve Timorese Moris (life) and lead the president to veto. This process showed political dynamics such as NGOs sending people’s voice to political society, No-disciplined revising legislation in the parliament, and unique style cohabitation. These findings help us to understand how democracy in Timor-Leste work when it faces controversial social issue.

How Can Farmers in Timor-Leste Improve Returns from their Farming Activities? Can Farmers Make More Than $5 a Day from Such Activities?

Luis de Almeida, Robert Williams, William Erskine, Richard Holloway, & Modesto Lopes, AI-COM, ICPBER, TOMAK

Timor-Leste is a small country with a population of nearly 1.2 million, and it is estimated that around 64% of its population relies on the agriculture sector. However, the contribution of the sector to the country’s GDP has been in decline for many years. Agriculture now only accounts for 33% of non-oil GDP. Reduced cropping area is a key factor reducing agriculture production in TL. This paper explores the financial return to farming in terms of dollar return per labour-day for a range of both crop and agronomic options. Financial analysis for several staple crops and two livestock enterprises showed that farmers receive less than $5/day in return for each day of work. As a consequence, the younger generation is leaving farming and seeking better employment. The promotion and wide-scale adoption of improved varieties, good agronomic practices, appropriate small-scale mechanization, improved storage and conservation agriculture are essential to increase farm profitability and maintain farming as a viable livelihood in TL.

Economic Impact of Tourism in Timor-Leste

Cecilia Requena & Sam Porter, Office of the Minister of State, Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs

This paper presents findings from research analysing the tourism sector in Timor-Leste. Using data from a survey of international visitors and available economic data, the analysis estimates the economic impact of international tourism in Timor-Leste. The paper first includes a comparative study of the economic impact of tourism in relevant countries and the methodology used to estimate the impact. The next section of the paper outlines the economic impact for the case of Timor-Leste and includes recommendations to strengthen the methodology and available data to estimate the impact. A key finding from the analysis is the high level of leakage of international tourism spending from the domestic economy through imports. This leakage severally constrains the impact of tourism spending on value addition to the economy and the generation of income and employment for the Timorese people. The last section of the paper outlines practical policy recommendations to increase the economic impact of tourism in Timor-Leste.

A Case Study of Timor-Leste: The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on Trade

Felix Piedade & Udoy Saikia, Flinders University

Timor-Leste has been experiencing a huge trade deficit almost throughout the entire post- independence era. This has been mainly due to the fact that Timor-Leste’s economy is still heavily dependent on import as compared to export. The gap between export and import has grown widely over the years since independence. At the same time there has been a dramatic increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) coming into the country. This paper examines how FDI is influencing the economy of Timor-Leste. The result from our analysis which is based on granger causality test of the secondary data on FDI, export and import between 2003 to 2014 and also from information collected through a number of interviews conducted in Timor-Leste, we found that the existence of FDI in Timor-Leste only granger cause more in the country’s import, not in export. This implies that FDI has led to the increase in Timor-Leste’s current import. Our analysis has also identified number of additional factors that contributed to Timor-Leste trade’s performance.

Youth, Migration and Local Development

Ann Wigglesworth, Victoria University

In Timor-Leste, the lack of job opportunities drives migration of young people from rural communities to Dili. The opportunities in Dili are little better with about 19,000 school leavers joining job seekers each year. The most reliable source of work is migration. Two small programs sponsored by the Timorese government sponsors young workers to go to South Korea for 3-5 years, or to Australia as Seasonal Workers for 6 months. With limited opportunities available, the majority of people seeking overseas work go independently to UK on Portuguese passports. Overseas work generates remittances which provide a lifeline to Timorese families and offers work experiences which can provide valuable new skills to the Timorese economy when workers return home. The opportunities and benefits of these three main migrant destinations and the implications of Brexit is discussed, as well as their contribution to the local economy when they return home.

Youth Wellbeing and Demographic Dividend: The Nation Building Process of Timor-Leste

Udoy Saikia, Merve Hosgelen, James Chalmers, & Gour Dasvarma, Flinders University

This paper is based on the consultative process informing the preparation of the 4th Timor-Leste Human Development Report. The focus is on training provided to the National Statistics Directorate, which is the key national partner in the project. The aim of training was to develop new and deeper insights into ways to achieve the future demographic dividend that Timor-Leste has on its radar. The paper explains the design of a wellbeing system that could help chart a pathway for the realisation of a future demographic dividend. The paper presents training information that was conducted in two main stages. The first of these comprises training field enumerators and supervisors before the start of the survey. The second stage of the training consisted of strengthening the capability of statistical specialists concerning demography and its inter-relations with economics, health and development and the analysis and interpretation of these data for policies and plans. The proposed paper also covers key preliminary findings of the survey presented in the second stage of training. This includes analysis of the following metrics on achievement of overall wellbeing sufficiency, rural-urban comparison, and district-wise comparison of the intensity of overall wellbeing achievement of Timorese youths.

The Future of Rural Schools Development in Timor-Leste

Peter Clements, Clements Aspani Pty Ltd Architects   PDF

This paper will examine the progress made in rural school construction in Timor-Leste since independence and unpack the dominant typologies employed in the design and construction of school buildings in Timor-Leste. Drawing from examples of actual rural schools constructed in Timor-Leste, this paper will draw parallels with school construction in other developing countries with similar climatic, economic and cultural environments. The aim is to explore possible scenarios and options for future rural school construction in Timor-Leste, weaving together both physical built form and the theories and community practices which generate these learning environments. Areas of relevance to rural school construction to be examined include the influences of tropical climate, mountainous terrain, locally available materials and labour practices, gender and WASH sanitation, water collection, school cooking facilities, earthquake resistance, structural engineering of reinforced concrete buildings in developing nations and post-construction maintenance.

The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk)
Institutu Timor-Leste ba Analiza no Monitor ba Dezenvolvimentu
Rua D. Alberto Ricardo, Bebora, Dili, Timor-Leste
P.O. Box 340, Dili, Timor-Leste
Tel: +670-3321040 or +670-77234330
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